Shipping and shipbuilding in the Caspian region: the public lecture in the Baku
The public lecture "Shipping and shipbuilding in the Caspian region" was introduced by General Director of Marine Engineering Bureau, Prof., Sc. Dr. Gennadiy Egorov in the Azerbaijan State Marine Academy in the Baku on 03.02.2016.
The main tendencies of development of the civil fleet of Caspian Region were described for attended colleagues: specialist from Azerbaijan Caspian Marine Shipping Company, teacher staff and students of the Academy.
The main attention was devoted to:
• "super-fat" RST27 tankers of Caspian modification;
• RSD49-based dry cargo vessels that provide simultaneously transportation of mass cargoes as well as project long-sized cargoes;
• MPSV07 salvage vessels for safety providing at the shelf regions;
• CNF18A cargo-passenger ferryboats;
• PV300VD cruise passenger vessels.
1. It was demonstrated that according to "opening" of Iran ports, the reals interest is put to modernized concept of the RST27 tanker, that has deadweight 7800 t at marine draught 4.50 m (keeping her record river deadweight 5400 t at draught 3.6 m). Taking into consideration that such 32 vessels are under operation yet and 8 more "super-fat" vessels are under construction, one can imagine successful proposal for construction of RST27 prj. with enhanced marine cargo capacity for Caspian region at the shipyards that have SERIES' production of these vessels.
2. Azerbaijan Caspian Marine Shipping Company already operates by 2 new 005RSD03 dry cargo vessels of 5467 t deadweight each. However it may be noted that practically these vessels are multipurpose ones mainly oriented for mass cargo.
This moment large-sized heavy-weight cargo (LHC) water transportation is carried out by river-sea vessels and non-self-propelled barges from marine ports and road transshipment complexes of Europe, Turkey, Russia to the destination at Caspian Sea through Russian inland waterways.
RSD49 series with long second hold are quite interesting from this point of view. For example, as press-service of OJSE "North-West Shipping Company" (OJSE NWSC) told, 7 multipurpose RSD49 dry-cargo vessels of "Neva Leader type" have effected 14 voyages with large-sized equipment since 2012 end. These vessels have carried out 7 transport operations with large-sized equipment during January – September of 2014 from Northern and Southern Europe towards Caspian Sea, Volga River basin, St.-Petersburg. All vessel's holds are box-shaped, smooth-wall, convenient for carrying out the freight works and placing a cargo without shifting. The cargo holds' sizes are 26.0x12.7x8.4 (hold No. 1), 52.00x12.7x8.4 m (hold Nos. 2), 27.3x12.7x8.4 (hold No. 3). Cargo holds are equipped with sectional hatch covers of Folding type of Cargotech with possibility of 100% opening. Tank top is designed to withstand distributed loading of 12.0 t per sq.m.
3. PV300VD mixed river-sea cruise passenger vessel of "Volgo-Don Max" type (her dimensions are set due to way restrictions of the Volgo-Don Shipping Canal). Vessel is intended for work on lines connecting the port of St. Petersburg with the port of Moscow through Volga-Don Shipping Canal and with entering to Azov, Black, Mediterranean Seas and through Volga River with entering to the Caspian Sea.
PV300VD concept architectural-structural type is as follows: steel, self-propelled triple-screw motor-electrical ship with slopping stem and transom stern, with excess freeboard, with elongated forecastle, with poop, with middle four-tiers superstructure, with wheelhouse located fore and engine-room located aft.
Vessel has the following main particulars:
Length overall 140.19 m;
Length between perpendiculars 130.80 m;
Breadth overall 16.60 m;
Design breadth 16.20 m;
Depth 5.50 m;
Maximum draught 3.20 m;
Height overall from BL 17.20 m;
Crew and service staff 76 people;
Autonomy by fuel is of 15 days, by other store is of 10 days.
300 passengers capacity variant has the following arrangement scheme: 144 standard double cabins, including 4 cabins with additional places and 6 luxury cabins. Passenger capacity of the vessel can be varied from 250 to 300 depending on the type of cabin modules used (area of standard cabins is about 18 sq.m). Passenger cabins are located in the middle vertical zone on 4 decks of superstructure. Luxury cabins have their own balconies.
4. Also CNF18A ferryboat was introduced; she is a railway-automobile ferryboat for the Caspian Sea, which is intended for transportation of cargo railway wagons, automobiles and passengers.
Today the following railway ferry crossings work at the Caspian Sea, as follows:
• Alyat (Baku) - Turkmenbashi (automobile-passenger and railway crossing);
• Alyat (Baku) – Aktau (automobile-passenger and railway crossing).
The main transported cargoes are crude oil and petroleum products, food and agricultural produce, building materials.
Totally 17 marine ferryboats (of 4 projects) are under operation. 13 vessels of them are railway cargo-passenger one of 3 projects (11611-À, 10802Å, 0379). The last 4 ferryboats (161 prj.) are marine automobile-passenger (cargo-passenger) ferryboats for passenger and Ro-Ro technics transportation.
All the railway ferryboats and 2 cargo-passenger ones belong to Azerbaijan Caspian Marine Shipping Company.
The mean age of marine ferryboats operated at the Caspian Sea (17 pcs) is 27.4 years. The mean age of the Caspian marine ferryboats (13 pcs.) which are able to transport railway wagons is 18.4 years.
It may be noted that all existing Caspian ferryboats have closed cargo spaces; this negatively influences either onto speed of loading-unloading operations at ferry crossings or shipping safety.
New CNF18A ferryboats are steel self-propelled vessels with bulbous fore end and transom aft end, with excess freeboard, with deck-house located fore, with engine room located aft, with twin-screw diesel propulsion plant, with stern and bow thrusters.
CNF18A ferryboat assigned for transportation of 54 railway trains of Russian standard with 1520 mm track breadth including ones with dangerous goods) and also passengers (2 passengers per single cargo car train) using the aft cargo handling scheme.
Vessel also is intended for dangerous cargo transportation on the open upper deck in accordance with International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code) and national Maritime Dangerous Goods Transportation Regulation (MOPOG Rules).
100 passengers may be placed and transported onboard the vessel. Simultaneously transportation of passengers and dangerous cargoes is foreseen according to dangerous goods transportation regulations.
Cabins are foreseen for 100 passengers arrangement onboard, as follows:
• 2 enhanced single cabins with toilet;
• 24 double cabins (converted into 4-places ones) with toilet.
Set of compartments are foreseen for passengers, as follows: duty-free shop, interne coffee, game-playing machines saloon with bar, 50 places restaurant, smoking-room; medical rooms (medical block) which include physician room / outpatient clinic, single-place hospital and single-place isolation ward.
Ferryboat is equipped with two 22-places lifeboats placed fore by sides. Lifeboats' launching is carried out by help of double-hinged gravitational davits.
Also two marine evacuation systems (MES) with closed inflatable living raft and evacuation pipe for ensuring access to the raft are arranged by sides. Accepted evacuation rate is 582 people per 30 minutes. Each evacuation system includes two 51-places living self-recovering rafts.
Cargo elevator for two railway tracks with capacity of 188 t (16.51 m length) is foreseen for loading/unloading railway wagons Ro-Ro cargoes from upper deck to lower deck and vice versa.
The upper deck is designed for transportation of wagons or tank wagons of 94 t on any railway lines. Permissible load of wheeled vehicles on the axle is as follows: 12 t for 4 wheels on the axle; 10 t for 2 wheels on the axle.
5. It was noted in the report, that experience of auxiliary and technical vessels operation shows that such vessels really have to be of multifunctional type. It's hardly to imagine that it will be possible now to build separate vessel for every problem; from one side if is economically insufficient, from other side it became more difficultly to fulfill required functions because vessel with required function may be not near the place of demand.
As an example, MPSV07 vessels can be considered. MPSV07 multifunctional salvage vessels of "Spasatel Karev" type are unique ones by their equipment and available technology. They were built by Russian Shipyard in accordance with order of FSUE "State Customer Management of Maritime Transport Development Programs" of the Federal Agency of Maritime and River Transport of the Russian Federation for the Marine Salvage Service of Rosmorrechflot.
Vessels of MPSV07 project are equipped with special water extinguishing systems, foam extinguishing and powder extinguishing, providing the possibility of emergency firefighting on vessels and shore facilities, accessible for approaching from the sea. Water or foam supply to the emergency object carries out through three hydraulic monitors with feeding of 1000 cub.m/h and length of the jet of 120 m set two on wheelhouse top and one on the top of the mast.
2 pumps with capacity of 1500 cub.m/h each are set to supply water to a special fire system with a drive from the main diesel generators. The water curtains system is foreseen to protect the vessel against effect of burning object.
The system of dynamic positioning is foreseen for ensuring the keeping the vessel at the place during the diving operations, as well as during the working near drilling platforms. Vessel's keeping is provided with full-circle rudder propellers and two bow thrusters with capacity of 995 kW each. Bow thruster's propeller diameter is of 2000 mm.
The positioning of the vessel is provided by three DGPS systems, by two sonar systems and the system of "stretched rope". Stable keeping of the vessel at the place is possible till seas of force 4, the wind speed of 10 m/s and current speed of 3 kn.
The equipment provided for the mass people collecting from the water on the vessels of MPSV07 project is as follows:
• duty boat, equipped with the net for rising people out of the water;
• Viking life raft of marine evacuation system (MES) for the people collecting and the subsequent displacement people on board by the slide of MES;
• salvage facility for rising people out of the water on board with a capacity of 12 lying and sitting people;
• net with the length of 7 meters for rising people out of the water on board of Dacon Rigid Scrambling Net type (on each side of the vessel);
• stretchers for rising people out of the water on board of Spenser floating stretcher type.
For emergency evacuation, as well as for the delivery on board of additional personal (medical team, emergency party, etc.), two sites in the fore and aft ends are foreseen for the receiving / transferring cargoes on (from) helicopter. For rising people on the helicopter the special seating slings and stretchers are foreseen in the supply of the vessel.
The accommodation of rescued people is foreseen in mess-rooms and also in additional beds at crew cabins. Also, there is 6-place hospital.
The total number men onboard is foreseen by 101. Individual and collective life-saving appliances are provided with a 50% reserve.
High-speed rescue boat with a capacity of 17 people, which is capable to develop speed up to 25 kn is provided for operative emergency party delivery to a emergency vessel. This boat operation is available till the 6 force seas. The boat is equipped with a hook of fast delivered type for engaging with the vessel crane. High-speed boat can perform hydrographic, surveying and search works apart from emergency team delivery. The boat is equipped with hydrographic sonar and side-scan sonar for this purpose.
Towage of emergency vessels, and also fulfillment marine towage of vessels is assumed by automatic double drum towing winch with a pull of 75 tons on the lower drum and 50 m on the upper drum. Moreover, the 75 t towing hook of disk-type with the remote electro / hydraulic release is foreseen. An auxiliary 10 t winch is provided for tightening of tow wire.
Oil spills response is one of the main functions of MPSV07 project vessels. There are six tanks for oil collection with total capacity of 668 cub.m, and also the following equipment:
• board oil gathering system of LSC-5C/2800 type of LAMOR firm, ensuring cleaning of waters with waves of up to 3 meters;
• reel with heavy oil-protected booms with length of 250 m;
• reel with booms of constant floating with length of 250 m;
• brush type skimmer.
Diesel-hydraulic aggregate is provided for drive of the oil spill equipment.
Also 2 boom-handling boats with hinged bow ramp are located on the deck.
Loading containers with equipment and supplies on the vessel, transferring of ebb facilities for an emergency boat and fulfillment of other loading operations is ensured by two electro cargo overhung cranes with a lifting capacity of 20 tons and outreach of 15 m in the aft end of the main deck from the right and left sides. Truck cranes are capable for working at full lifting capacity in conditions of the open sea with the waves of up to 3 points.
The set of water discharging units are foreseen for pumping water from flooded compartments of emergency objects; the set includes as follows:
• 2 submersible pumps with capacity of 405 cub.m/h each;
• 2 submersible explosion-proof pumps with capacity of 103 cub.m/h each;
• 2 submersible pumps with capacity of 70 cub.m/h each;
• 2 portable ejectors with capacity of 69 cub.m/h each.
Diving systems are installed in container on vessels of the MPSV07 project, ensuring the fulfillment of works at depths up to 60 meters. The facility is located in two 20-foot containers installed on the main deck of the vessel. Divers' descent is fulfilled with help of diver ladder from vessel's deck when there is no ice. At ice conditions divers' descent is fulfilled through diving well in the middle part of the vessel. Facilities for underwater welding and cutting metal (electric welding, oxy-electric cutting), as well as a set of diving hydraulic tools of Stanley type are foreseen in diving equipment.
Remotely operated uninhabited deep-sea device Sperre SUB Fighter 7500 is provided in order to provide underwater search works except the diving equipment, and also a towed side-scan sonar of 4200 SP type, used at depths of up to 1000 m with an electro winch for cable-rope with length of about 3000 m is provided.
Active discussing of the report after the lection's end validates the idea that discussed new vessels are extremely demand for the Caspian Sea.