Traditional technical-science conference of naval structural mechanics dedicated to the memory of academic P.F. Papkovich has completed
Conference took place in St.Petersburg on 23-24.12.20125 and was organized by FSUE "Krylovskiy State Scientific Center" (KSSC) and by Central branch of Russian Technical-Science Shipbuilders Society named for academic A.N. Krylov (V.M. Shaposhnikov, Ph.D., head of Strength and Reliability of Constructions Department of KSSC is a head of organizing committee; Evgeniy Shishenin, Ph.D., Associate Professor is a Scientific Secretary).
More than 60 reports concerning actual problems of designing/construction and strength of vessels and marine/sea structure were presented at this conference. More than 90 leading specialists from researching institutes, universities, designing organizations and shipbuilding universities participated in the conference.
Marine Engineering Bureau introduced 13 reports at the conference, which were divided into 5 blocks: ferryboats, tug-barge trains and vessels for the "Northern Delivery", dry-cargo vessels; auxiliary and technical fleet, hull constructions reliability and strength providing at during heavy-weight cargo transportation.
1. Design principles for hull of new railway Arctic ferryboat for Vanino-Holms line (G.V. Egorov and I.A. Ilnitskiy are authors).
Hull for the new concept was developed with help of computer modeling and validated at towing tanks of Krylov State Scientific Center and Aker Arctic Technology.
Winter navigation in the Tatar Strait is often characterized by "ice storm" when storm waves are observed together with broken ice on water surface. During such storms ice blocks may appear the vessel's deck inflicting significant damages. At strong frosts windward vessel's part become covered by thick ice layer. During ice storm quick hummocking takes place in the region of ice cohesion and pressing.
As a rule, intensive ice forming starts in the middle of December - beginning of January, ice has maximal thickness at the middle of February and at the middle of the March sea is clean from ice. The latest ending of the ice conveyance was observed on 18.04.1984.
At emergence of the "ice river" only vessels with the ice category ARC 5 and higher are allowed to call to the port of Vanino.
But as the incident with the tanker "Igrim" shows, in hard situations category ULA (ARC 7) is required. This tankers had ice category UL (ARC 5) and power of 7.8 MW but was pressed against ice foot by the "ice river" at the distance of 3 cables from shore.
In winter of 2011-2012 timeout of 143 vessels made 299 days for weather waiting; in 2013 ice restrictions for vessels' class was used for 52 days, in 2014 they were used for 26 days.
So concept's hull contours have to be of high speed type in order to ensure line service, and simultaneously to provide season independed work in heavy ice (3-4 month of the year, at short trip distance).
Two alternative decisions concerning hull contours meet these requirements: optimized ice-breaking shape and double-acting vessel's shape.
The ice running characteristics of the CNF11CPD automobile-railway ferryboat were get as a result of the carried out researches. On the basis of towing tank tests, the limit ice-passing capability will make 1.16 m for speed of 3 kn at full forward running, 0.84 m for speed of 6 kn at full forward running and 0.68 m for speed 1.5 kn at full astern running. Speed will make 4.5 kn in the 1.0 m ice (not less than 3 kn is required) and 6.4 kn in the 0.8 m ice (not less than 6 kn is required).
Moreover, structure of fore and aft ends is designed for higher ice category (Arc 7); together with Icebreaker 6 level ice-passing, this allows providing (unlike the existing vessels) independent operation of the new ferry in severe ice conditions at a short part of voyage route (about 30 miles at the Vanino settlement region). In turn it will allow avoiding considerable timeout of the ferryboat waiting for the icebreaker conveyance or excess expenses in case of individual conveyance.
Concept of new generation car-railway ferryboat for the Vanino-Kholmsk line provides in comparison with the existing "Sakhalin" type vessels: enhanced cargo capacity (truck cars capacity is 2.6 times bigger); weather restrictions absence (unrestricted sailing region); ability of working in severe ice conditions; ability to carry out independent (several times per day) moorings without towing assistance; ability for long reverse movement through constrained water area of the port of Kholmsk; ability to keep up daily cycle of round voyage (operation speed is 18 kn); 2-hours staying for loading-unloading operations.
2. Design specifics for present-day railway cargo-passenger ferryboats for the Caspian Sea (G.V. Egorov and I.A. Ilnitskiy are authors).
Up-to-date projects of railway cargo-passenger ferryboats for the Caspian Sea for transportation of railway wagons and other Ro-Ro cargoes were introduced; transportation of dangerous goods or passengers is available. These ferryboats (CNF18A prj.) are of "Ice 2" class that provides ability of whole-year navigation without ice conveyance.
It may be noted that in despite of Sakhalin or Baltic ferryboats, Caspian ferryboats (same as earlier Black Sea ones) were designed as "open" type vessels. Railway wagons are foreseen to be arranges on the upper deck that essentially simplifies dangerous goods transportation which prevail over other cargoes in this region.
3. Design specifics for construction of railway ferryboats for Ust-Luga - Baltiysk - Sassnitz (Mukran) line (G.V. Egorov, I.A. Ilnitskiy, D.V. Chernikov are authors).
The mean age of marine railway ferryboats (2 ones) operated at Ust-Luga - Baltiysk - Sassnitz (Mukran) line is 29 years.
It's necessary to note that railway ferry terminal in Sassnitz (Mukran) was designed and constructed in the middle of 2000s for the ferryboats of "Mukran" type. Series name was accepted due to town's name; totally 4 ferryboats were built. Unfortunately, only single these series vessel "Kaunas Seaways" calls to the Sassnitz.
CNF05 ferryboats of "Baltiytsk" type that are operated now at Ust-Luga - Baltiysk - Sassnitz don't fully use maximal dimensions of the railway terminal.
As a result of investigations, Marine Engineering Bureau worked out CNF19 technical project of railway ferryboat for transportation of railway wagons and Ro-Ro cargoes, with ice class "Arc 4". CNF19 ferryboat is intended for the line Ust-Luga - Baltiysk - Sassnitz (Mukran) and has the maximal available characteristics and dimensions that ensure whole year transportation of cargoes, including dangerous ones.
Technical distinctive feature of developed new generation project is conformity to the most up-to-date safety requirements including ecologic safety requirements (Baltic Sea is a special zone); LNG foreseen as main engines' fuel. In the report it was shown in detail specific shore terminals at Baltiysk and Ust-Luga and demonstrated their influence on design of shape, contours and dimensions of the ferryboat's hull, also on hull's construction and equipment.
Cargo is arranged in the closed cargo space onboard Baltic CNF19 concept. Ferryboats rails can joined to the rails of railway bridges intended for "Mukran" ferryboats as well as for "Baltiysk" ones. No railway switch is required onboard ferryboat. Loading / unloading may be effected by 3 passes (by pairs) instead of 4 passes; loadings are symmetrical.
Ferryboat has closed superstructure through whole vessel's length, so it's allowed to accept cargo (main) deck at the height 1.6 m above cargo waterline. The limited height of the bridge raising is 3.94 m during cargo operations; for this value the permissible ferryboat's aft draught decreasing (raising) is 1.94 m taking into consideration set water level +0.40 m. Anyway cargo deck always is arranges higher than limited low bridge position -1.25 m.
Transverse section of the proposed ferryboat concept is as follows: vertical sides as "Mukran" and "Baltiysk" have; upper deck at the level of 15 m above BL; bottom width is close to vessel's breadth (except region of hull bilges); lower edge of the fender is 1.2 m above cargo waterline. Bottom in the aft end is constantly submerged: for the depth 0.2 m at the transom and for depth1.2 m at the distance 7.7 m from transom (at cargo waterline draught). This allows avoiding sharp alternation of trimming moments during aft end rising at cargo operations.
Usage of the single-deck "open" concept for ferryboats is efficient for Black Sea terminals, especially for dimensions accepted for the Caucasus port.
Such decision is ineffective for Baltic Sea terminals (with low-set bridges) when servicing vessels with length about 200 m. From one side, enough high coast is required and that prevents joining with bridge. From other side, section's height is insufficient (due to absence of uninterrupted superstructure) in order to provide general strength. Problem concerning wagons' icing on the open deck in Baltic winter is left untouchable.
4. Class accepting for mixed river-sea tug-barge trains and composite vessels in accordance with navigation area (A.G. Egorov is author).
Actual and perspective (the "rotator" scheme) models of operation for mixed river-sea tug-barge trains and composite vessels; methodic for approximate transportation capacity definition is introduced. Recommendations due to navigation area accepting in accordance with developed models of operation are introduced too.
One may work our effective business plan for new fleet building by using developed models together with actual transportation schemes that are of interest of concrete customer, and effecting pre-contract design of self-propelled pusher vessels and barges.
5. Design specific for hull of small-draught river composite vessels for Siberia (G.V. Egorov and A.G. Egorov are authors).
As a result of Marine Engineering Bureau investigations, several technical projects of small-draught composite vessel with restricted working draught were fulfilled, as follows: dry cargo variant (RD63 dry cargo pusher vessel plus RDB21 dry cargo barge), tanker variant (RT63 tanker pusher vessel plus ROB21 tanker barge) and combined variant (RT63A dry-cargo/tanker pusher vessel plus ROB21A dry-cargo/tanker barge).
8. Hull's design for river-sea dry cargo vessel with "Ice 40" category for the "Northern Delivery" (G.V. Egorov, V.I. Tonyuk, N.N. Kalugina are authors).
Analyze of actual cargo flows and fleet acting for the "Northern" Delivery is carried out. Also navigation conditions and logistic schemes are examined. Up-to-date RSD62 concept of dry-cargo vessel for the "Northern" Delivery is introduced.
The new concept of the river and river-sea dry cargo vessel for the "Northern" Delivery has deadweight 2992 t at draught 2.50 m, 4145 t at draught 3.00 m, 5304 t at draught 2.50 m. Pointed deadweight values considerably exceeds same values for the existing dry cargo vessels used today for the same tasks.
For example, for draft 2.50 m RSD62 vessel's deadweight is by 824 t more than for 292 vessel, by 985 t more than for 0225 vessel and by 960 t more than for 1743 vessel.
RSD62 vessel has the displacement-to-deadweight utilization coefficient better than 0225 or 292 vessels. 1743 vessel's coefficient is slight better because this project was designed in the 1970s due to "old" RRR Rules for class M (weaker than the M-SP of RSD62). 1743 vessels of "Omskiy" type have maximum draught of 3.26 m and cannot be operated with draught 3.50 m, missing significant amount of cargo at each voyage comparing with RSD62 vessel.
Comparing RSD62 vessel with vessels for the RF European part (RSD44 and 05074M prjs.), it is possible to note that deadweight of the RSD62 vessel is close to RSD44 vessel at same draughts and exceeds deadweight of "Volga" type vessels (05074M prj.). For example, deadweight of RSD62 vessel is 5304 t for river draught 3.50 m that is almost equally to corresponding parameter for RSD44 vessel and by 419 t more than for "Volga" type vessel. Thus RSD62 vessel has higher class M-SP (RSD44 vessel's class is M-PR and 05074M vessel's class is O-PR). RSD62 vessel has also Ice 40 category.
7. Factors that influences reliability of Danube region dry-cargo vessels' hull (O.G. Egorova is author).
Main particulars of the optimal inland waterways vessels are set maximally close to the dimensional restrictions of the lines to which they are intended. But in accordance with well-known low-water problem it's impossible to accept such dimensions (namely length and breadth) for a single hull. It's really hard to imagine single-hull vessel of 160-240 m length with draught 1.40 m and corresponding small depth. So usual engineering decision for such situations are tug-boat trains and composite vessels, i.e. several vessels joined together, which correspond to the maximal line's restriction.
If examine Danube River transportation, in 2014 tug-boat trains transported 3.7 million tons of cargo through Mokhach (Hungary) control point. Amount of 3.7 million tons makes 74.7% of total transported capacity (74.3% in 2013); 2.24 from 3.7 million tons were transported upstream (83.5% of total transported upstream capacity) (79.8 % in 2013). In average 45-50 tug-boat trains passed upstream/downstream through Mokhach control point monthly.
Such typical non-self-propelled vessel are dry-cargo and tanker sectional barges of "Europe-2B" type with cargo capacity of 1600-2000 t. These barges' dimensions are unified: L x B x D x d = 76.0...76.5 x 11.0...11.4 x 3.2 x 2.7...3.0 m, air draught is less than 5.3 m; so the minimal steel consumption is an aim of the designer but taking into consideration in-fact risks appeared during whole vessel's life-cycle (operational period up to 30-35 years).
In accordance with practical information, the biggest part of hull fractures of inland vessels (especially on the European rivers where is no significant waves) take place due to buckling failure of the elements of the compressed strake of the hull girder.
The main problems of the previous barges generation were associated mainly with insufficient buckling of plates of shell and decks at transverse framing system, especially for compressed bottom.
For hulls with longitudinal framing system number of hull fractures corresponds for mean probability 0.0028 for whole operational period; this same probability for transverse framing system makes 0.0114. Thus, hull fracture probability for transverse framing system is 4.1 times bigger than for longitudinal one.
RDB11 has longitudinal framing system. It became possible to increase ultimate bending moment by 43% for hull of RDB11 at sagging due to changing transverse framing system for longitudinal one at the practically same metal consumption (+ 2.5 t). Such decision ensured equal hull strength for both sagging and hogging.
It is principally important for river vessels because still water bending moment during cargo operations is main loading and main danger for them.
This decision let to discard mandatory restriction acting for RDB06 barge (it has usual for European barges transverse framing system); restriction requires to carry out loading/unloading operations by 2-layers method (2 passes). RDB11 barge can be loaded by single pass; this essentially decreases staining time and lowering role of human error in case of incorrect cargo distribution or incorrect loading/unloading sequence.
Moreover, sagging decreasing (compressed bottom) occurs with bigger gradient for transvers framing system than in other conditions. This forwards to the situation at which vessels with transverse framing system miss their strength qualities faster.
Decreasing of ultimate moment for the transverse framing hull is about 1.8% per year from the initial building value. Same decreasing for the hull with longitudinal extreme members makes only 0.8%.
So accepted constructive measures provide more reliability for transverse framing barge hull.
8. Strength calculations for constructions and securing gauges for heavy cargo transportation (G.V. Egorov, N.F. Butenko, V.A. Nilva are authors).
Review of development history of "Rules for transportation of large-sized heavy-weight cargo (LHC) is worked out. Results of mutual investigations of constructions strength and securing gauges strength during LHC transportation are shown.
From the normative documents point of view, several items are principally important for providing LHC transportation safety, as follows: rational arrangement and safe securing of cargo onboard vessel; ensuring local strength of vessel's constructions that contact with cargo; vessel's stability when cargo is placed on cargo deck or hatch covers.
9. Design and operation experience for dry cargo vessels in Caspian Sea conditions (G.V. Egorov, V.I. Tonyuk are authors).
Cargo base for the vessels of the Caspian region is established by special geographic transit arrangement of the great lake-sea and by needs of Caspian countries: Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Iran, Turkmenistan and some neighbor countries: Georgia, Armenia, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Oman and also India, Afghanistan, Pakistan.
Main Caspian Sea ports are as follows: Astrakhan, Olya, Makhachkala, Baku, Aktau, Atyrau, Turkmenbashi, Neka, Noushekhr, Enzeli, Amir-Abad.
In the current economic conditions the mostly demanded feature of the 005RSD03 vessel is her marine function as for vessel of about 5000 t cargo capacity at restricted draughts of the Caspian Sea ports, as well as her river function for project cargo transportation through Russian inland waterways towards Caspian Sea ports.
Technical and economic characteristics of 005RSD03 vessels are significantly better than for competitor vessels, namely bigger deadweight/ displacement coefficient and smaller energy consumption per transport productivity (output/(Dw x speed)). Big vessels are mostly closed to "Kareliya" concept due to efficiency; but such vessels undoubtedly have big light weight and correspondingly high building cost.
A set of vessels, mostly traditional river-sea ones were observed as "Caspian" vessels; these vessel had class R3-RSN (M-SP) or R2-RSN ("Volgo-Balt" type of 2-95, 2-95 A/R prjs., "Sormovskiy" type of 1557, 613, 488AM prjs., "Amur" type of 92-13/040 prj., "Volgo-Don"/"Volzhskiy" type of 1565, 05074A (shorten) prjs.) designed or modernized for operation at draughts 3.6-4.0 m with river cargo capacity about 3000 t and marine cargo capacity about 3000-4000 t. From this set of vessels, 2-95 A/R ones have the best relative cargo capacity characteristics and 05074A ones have the best dimensional cargo capacity characteristics. After cargo capacity enhancing of 05074A vessels, their specification SF significantly decreases (down to 1.16 m3/t); so cargo capacity advantage can be realized only for heavy cargo.
It may be pointed that shortening of lengthy vessels, e.g. as for 19611 prj. (shorten 19610 prj.) down to length of 005RSD03 prj doesn't allow such vessels to compete with "Kareliya" type ones.
Usage of high (3.8 m) coamings of cargo hatches provide a lot of advantages: effective cargo loading capacity, significantly enhanced cargo capacity, decreased expenses in the native ports, enough general longitudinal strength without increasing of thickness for the biggest part of hull constructions comparing with minimal ones due to RS Rules.
10. Design and operational experience concerning dry cargo vessels' hull of "Neva-Leader" type of "Volgo-Don Max" class (G.V. Egorov, V.I. Tonyuk, E.Yu. Durnev are authors).
Justification of concept's accepting and its development were carried out for multipurpose dry-cargo mixed river-sea vessel "Neva-Leader" taking into consideration requirements of the main operator. Analyze of different variants of the propulsion complex is fulfilled, mostly optimal variant is accepted. Comparing analyze of main particulars of existent river-sea dry-cargo vessels is worked out.
The main feature of the new RSD49 concept is cargo hold with hatch opening 52.0 õ 12.7 m, which allows transportation of long-sized project cargo at the straight voyages from Europe to Caspian Sea. This feature significantly influence on financial result of vessel's work.
11. Design and operational experience concerning hull of single-hold dry cargo coasters of "Caspian Express" type (G.V. Egorov, V.I. Tonyuk, N.N. Kalugina, V.A. Cherniy are authors).
The principal distinction coaster's work from work of river-sea vessels (RSV) is coaster's intensive operation in the coastal marine regions with episodic navigation trough inner waterways.
Primary marine operation demands providing of sufficient seakeeping abilities; that forwards to understandable decrease of block coefficient comparing with RSV.
Necessity of episodic operation at internal waterways set restrictions to the coaster's maximal dimensions, firstly to breadth, draught and air draught. This circumstance determines difference of particulars (breadth and air draught) for European coasters (that episodic work at Rhine, Seine, Mosel, Elbe, Danube Rivers and Saimaa Island) from domestic coasters intended for passing (not only) Volgo-Don Shipping Canal. As a rule, width of European dry-cargo coasters occupies region 10.5 - 15.0 m (16.5 m for domestic vessels), summer freeboard draught is 4.4-6.5 m (against 3.2-4.5 m), depth is 6.5-8.0 m (against 5.0-6.0 m) and operational speed is 11.0-14.5 kn (against 10.0-10.5 kn). All these allow to work out a conclusion that European coasters without correction of main particulars cannot be competitive in compare with domestic vessels if there is necessity for our small-depth ports.
Vessels of Marine Engineering Bureau, such as base design 003RSD04 and its modification 003RSD04/ALB02 are adapted for operation at draughts 4.1-4.5 m that are character for Russian ports at Azov and Caspian Seas. These vessels belong to the "Azov 3000" type due to inner bureau's classification and have ability to pass through Volgo-Don Shipping Canal (keeping ability to load cargo party of 2000 t even at river draught of 3.40 m).
Vessels of 003RSD04/ALB03 modification has more sharp marine function, moreover their operation takes place mostly not at small-depth ports of Azov Sea but at more deep ports of Black, North, Baltic Seas and Mediterranean. Despite of base project, this modification vessels have navigable region restriction R1 due to RS Rules, that allows to make voyages with enlarged distance to the shelter places and with enlarged permissible wave height. As before, these vessels are a symbiosis of European coasters and domestic conditions; but proportion of main particulars (especially breadth / depth) is more close to usual European coasters.
Character feature of Caspian Express vessels is single box-shaped cargo hold that allows transportation of long-sized project cargo from Europe to Caspian Sea.
Concept's advantage is reached thank to limitation of navigation region and rational distribution of thickness and categories of material of the steel hull from positions of ensuring the general longitudinal and local strength.
12. Auxiliary and technical vessels of the XXI century: hull design requirements (G.V. Egorov, I.A. Ilnitskiy, V.I. Tonyuk, N.V. Avtutov, D.V. Chernikov, Ya.V. Kalugin are authors).
Experience of auxiliary and technical vessels operation shows that such vessels really have to be of multifunctional type. It's hardly to imagine that it will be possible now to build separate vessel for every problem; from one side if is economically insufficient, from other side it became more difficultly to fulfill required functions because vessel with required function may be not near the place of demand.
Successful realization of the wide spectrum of the emergency response and rescue works is determined by following main factors: good ice- passing capability, adequate still water propulsion and sufficient seakeeping combined with restricted draught. The line-up of up-to-date auxiliary and technical vessels designed by Marine Engineering Bureau in XXI century is proposed.
As for the beginning of September, 2015, civil Russian fleet was increased in XXI century by 322 marine and river auxiliary and technical vessels including, as follows: 3 marine and river ice-breakers; 38 salvage, diving, fire and ecologic vessels; 159 tugboats and pusher boats; 15 bunkering vessels; 7 supply dry cargo vessels; 75 buoy vessels; 5 dredgesæ 4 floating cranes; 15 running vessels, and also more than 160 crafts.
There are vessels under construction: 8 ice-breakers, 15 salvage, 4 bunkering vessels, 3 buoy vessels, more than 10 working and pilot crafts.
13. Design specific for hull of up-to-date river dredgers (N.V. Avtutov, E.A. Osadchiy are authors).
Dredgers (suction dredges, chain dredges etc.) play significant part at creation and required dimensions maintenance of the inland waterways.
Analyze of technical fleet condition due to vessels' normative life terms shows that the mean aging is 84%. The biggest anxiety is concerned with change for the worse of dear dredger fleet condition. There is discarding forecast of these vessels for 2015-2016.
It's necessary to start replenishment of technical vessels' set for ensuring carrying out of planning capacity of route-keeping works. This replenishment may be done by new shipbuilding with simultaneously modernization and/or building of vessels with usage of elements of donor vessels.
Same time these vessels have to be optimized due to productivity and constructive decisions, improvement of the dredging works technology, considering features of each river basin and other characteristics.
The line-up of up-to-date river dredgers for different regions of the country is introduced in the report.