Open lecture "Civil shipbuilding at Russian river shipyards" at the Volga State University of Water Transport
The open lecture "Civil shipbuilding at Russian river shipyards" of General Director of MEB, Prof., Sc. Dr. Gennadiy Egorov was held in the Volga State University of Water Transport. The lecture was introduced to teachers and students, as well as for members of the Scientific and Technical Council of the Russian River Register.
In the lecture it was noted that the situation concerning the civil shipbuilding at the beginning of the XXI century is very similar to the one that was in Russia hundred years ago.
The problems, which exist now, are not new. Problems are as follows: "What is Russian role in the global shipbuilding industry?", "How to increase civil shipbuilding at the Russian shipyards? How to transport more Russian cargoes by Russian vessels?".
It is enough to recall a series of publications of the early XX century issued by an outstanding engineer Tennyson K.A., i.e.:
• "The project of incentives of Russian merchant navigation in connection with the development of domestic shipbuilding and metallurgical industry", 1902;
• article "War and Russian Shipping" in the magazine "Russian Shipping", 1916, etc.;
and legislations of Russian Empire, as follows:
• "The law of 24th of May, 1904 about the issue of government loans for the purchase of newly built in Russia from Russian materials of wood and metal of marine merchant vessels";
• "The law of 21st of May, 1912 concerning measures of incentive of Russian Shipbuilding".
Tennyson pointed out that it was necessary to create a demand for vessels built in Russia. It was clear that such demand would appear primarily from the Russian shipowners. Accordingly, they need to be helped to "stand up", i.e. to create a system of incentives.
The main idea of the author was quite simple: "all activities that contribute to the development of Russian merchant fleet are at the same time a measure of incentive of Russian shipbuilding."
As a result, since 1909 till now, almost all river fleet and the Caspian marine fleet has been built at Russian shipyards. 5.5 thousands of self-propelled vessels and 23 thousands of non-self-propelled ones had been operated on the Russian rivers by 1913. For information, in 1895 the amount of vessels operated on internal waterways was two times less.
Today the role of the state in the saving and development of river shipbuilding is noticeable not less.
First of all, there is a federal law about the support of the Russian shipbuilding and shipping, according to which the shipyards-residents at special economic zones were exempted from land tax and property tax for 10 years. Shipyards also were exempted from payment of custom duties for imported foreign equipment that was not produced in the country. In turn, the shipping companies have been exempted from tax on profits from the operation or sale of vessels which were built in RF; and for the period from 2012 to 2027 zero tariffs of insurance contributions to the Pensionary Fund, Social Insurance Fund and Federal Fund of Compulsory Health Insurance were set for these companies. Shipowners, whose vessels have been built since 01.01.2010 in Russia and for Russia (registered in Russian International Register of Vessels, including river and the river-sea vessels) will obtain preferences and privileges provided by the law.
The rapid degradation of the river fleet was stopped thanks to the accepted in 2011 law concerning support of shipping and shipbuilding in 2011-2014. Accordingly, three years running the amount of vessels DOESN'T DECREASE and the average age DOESN'T GROW: in 2012 there were 22440 vessels and 33.3 years; in 2013 there were 22462 ones and 33.27 years; in 2014 there were 22678 and 33.26 years. This very positive process is provided mainly due to new shipbuilding.
Secondly, by the decree of the RF government on compensation of 2/3 interest rates on the credit if vessel is constructed for the Russian company on the Russian shipyard.
Thirdly, directly by budgetary funds from the Federal Purpose Program (FPP) "Development of RF transport system (2010-2015)" by reconstruction and building of water constructions and the auxiliary technical fleet.
Fourthly, new projects creation for the river and mixed river-sea vessels within the FPP "Development of civil marine technics in 2009-2016". The most striking example is a unique concept of the "super-fat" mixed river-sea tanker which materialized in 2012-2015 as thirty two (!!!) RST27 tankers (the biggest vessels' series in Post-Soviet time).
In the XXI century 2541 vessels and boats of all types were received generally from domestic shipyards; some objects' types were registered at the State Inspection of the Small-Dimensions Fleet. On average about 180 objects were put into operation annually.
It is clear that it were constructed much less significant vessels.
During 15 years of the new century 309 cargo self-propelled vessels were constructed. This amount consists of 301 vessels of marine restricted or mixed river- sea types and 8 ones of internal navigation type; it includes 162 tankers, 12 bunkering tankers, 3 the combined vessels and 132 dry cargo vessels.
The vessels of "Volgo-Don Max" class, which are responsible for dimensions of the Volgo-Don Shipping Canal (VDSC) and intended for replacing of the famous soviet series "Volgoneft" and "Volgo-Dons" were and are the most demanded. "Volgo-Don Max" class vessels are universal for work at European part of Russian inland waterways due to their dimensions. In total 181 this type vessels were constructed (or 59% of summarized number of new cargo vessels). Russian shipyards provided delivery of 125 this class dry cargo and tanker vessels (69%), Turkish shipyards provided 22 vessels, Chinese yards provided 20 vessels and Ukrainian shipyards provided 14 vessels.
Concerning other segments of water cargo fleet, 91 vessels (71%) were built in Russia, 19 ones were built in China and Vietnam, 17 ones were built in Turkey and single vessel was built in Ukraine.
Most of all, new generation vessels were discussed as they were constructed by projects developed after the 2000, as follows: more than 173 vessels (56%) were built due to Marine Engineering Bureau projects, 59 vessels (19%) were built due to projects of Volga-Caspian Bureau ("Krasnoe Sormovo" bureau), and 25 vessels were built due to projects of "Vympel" Bureau (8%).
Certainly, besides construction of large-capacity self-propelled cargo fleet, after 2000 delivery of other cargo vessels was carried out in Russia; totally 226 barges, 50 tug-pushers and tugboats were delivered mostly for Eastern basins. 125 units of fleet (76%) were intended for Eastern basins, all of them were built at local shipyards, e.g. in Krasnoyarsk (46 barges, generally at the Krasnoyarsk Shipyard) and in Tyumen (19 barges, generally by TyumenSudokomlekt).
22 tugboats from total number of 50 are intended for barge pushing, other ones are intended for towage and ship-handling works in ports or their roads. There were built 30 vessels for work in Siberia and the Far East, 8 vessels for the European North (Arkhangelsk and adjacent areas).
Thus only 8 tug-pushers of 1400-1840 kW are intended for pushing of "Volgo-Don Max" type barges. Other tugboats and tug-pushers have considerably smaller capacity: in the range 400-600 kW there are 17 vessels, the others are 250kW or less.
Just now shipowners from the Eastern basins prefer to use existing pusher tug even for new barges. Firstly, there is a lot of pusher tug in operation. Secondly, they don't suffer from new requirements of Marine Fleet Regulations as e.g. tankers do. Thirdly, it's cheaper to repair old vessel than to construct new pusher tug.
In the XXI century Russian water transport received about 200 passenger vessels, ferryboats and running boats. 170 constructed passenger vessels include, as follows: 115 pleasure vessels (68%), generally for St. Petersburg; 5 cruise passenger vessels ("Alexander Green", "Rus Velikaya" and three "Sura" type vessels), 20 vessels for local lines (16 ones for Siberia, 2 ones for Arkhangelsk), 30 self-propelled and non-self-propelled cargo-passenger ferryboats (16 ones for Eastern basins, 4 ones for the North of the European part).
Thus, a number of vessels were constructed generally in Eastern and Northern regions for providing communication tasks, as follows: 20 passenger vessels, 30 ferryboats and 18 Ro-Ro barges with ramps which also often used at crossings.
The special part of the report was devoted to new cruise vessels, particularly to the PV300VD mixed river-sea vessel. Vessel is intended for work on lines connecting the port of St. Petersburg or the port of Rostov-on-Don with the port of Moscow through Volga-Don Shipping Canal and by effecting marine voyages through Azov, Caspian, Black, Mediterranean, Red and Baltic Seas. Passenger capacity is 300 people at cabins with 16 - 39 sq.m. area. Comfort level corresponds to 4* hotel including all conditions for disable persons rest.
PV300VD project was created with active participating of the leading passenger fleet operators such as the Moscow River Shipping Company, VolgoFlot and some international operators:
• due to recommendation of passenger companies, the number of restaurants is increased from 1 to 3; that has enabled one change meal period for passengers; restaurants' specific area was increased from 0.9 to 1.6 sq.m per single person;
• "Swedish lines" are organized in all restaurants; two broadly placed "swedish lines" are foreseen in the main restaurant;
• the panorama restaurant is equipped with bar console and may be used as round-the-clock bar;
• meals preparation can be watched in the restaurant with open kitchen because kitchen is separated from restaurant by glass wall only; this restaurant is able to work round-the clock also. Restaurant has opened terrace with two-person tables;
• panorama Lounge Bar is foreseen in the vessel's aft end;
• pool and two jacuzzis are foreseen on the terrace of the round-the-clock bar/disco club;
• open solar deck is equipped with movable tent, stage and artist's room;
• area of fore and aft lobbies on the main deck was significantly increased in order to improve passenger service at the cruise start and during cruise stops;
• fore and aft lobbies are equipped with atriums. Fore atrium is running through all decks of deck-house and has solar window in the deck-house roof;
• there are reception and office room in the fore lobby;
• both lobbies are equipped with rest zones c with couches and coffee-machines.
The river auxiliary and technical fleet also was constructed. For May 15, 2015 a number of vessels was put into operation: 71 buoy-laying vessels; 20 diving, fire and salvage vessels; 3 ecological vessels, 1 river ice-breaker and other vessels (totally about 100 units). More than a half of vessels were constructed by orders of FSE "Rechvodput" (that is subordinated to RosMorRechFlot). Federal Purpose Program "Development of RF transport system foresees construction about 400 auxiliary river vessels.
Also more than 300 different function boats were constructed.
There are several main shipyards which provided building of new cargo self-propelled vessels of mixed river-sea and restricted marine navigations; they are: the Nizhny Novgorod "Krasnoe Sormovo" Shipyard (87 vessels), Navashino "Oka Shipyard" (36 vessels), the Volgograd Shipyard (33 vessels), Petrozavodsk "Onega Shipyard" (18 vessels), and also the Kherson Shipyard (16 vessels) and Nikolaev "Okean" Shipyard (9 vessels).
At this moment Krasnoe Sormovo Shipyard, Oka Shipyard and Nevskiy Shipyard possess the biggest real potential. Onega Shipyard is returning for the activity thanking to the RosMorPort efforts; in 2005-2012 Onega shipyard provided building of 18 vessels. Also Lotos shipyard has perspectives due to support of Government of Astrakhan region.
It was shown in the report, that accepting of main particulars for river-sea vessels is defined by way restrictions, strategy of future shipowner and his position in the market, adherence to some or other transport lines and cargo types. As usually, in contrast to dry cargo vessels, the most interesting decisions for tankers are those that provide the maximal cargo capacity for set conditions. Set cargo parts-dividing (3000 t, 5000 t) and specified draught are taken into consideration when accepting main particulars for dry cargo vessels.
The analysis of corresponding alternatives has allowed producing a parametric line of mixed river-sea vessels (RSV) that are objectively demanded by Russian shipowners and working out projects of new vessels of XXI century's concepts at Marine Engineering Bureau basing on this parametric line.
This parametric line of projects includes high demand for existing Russian market the following basic classes of RSV (self-propelled and tug-barge train ones):
• "Volgo-Balt Max" type; its dimensions correspond to way restrictions of Volgo-Balt Waterway, mostly to turn radiuses and dimensions of locks' chamber. The maximal available cargo capacity is 5000-6000 tons for characterized river draught 3.60 m. Vessel's dimensions and enhanced manoeuvrability (due to full-turn rudder propellers and bow thruster) provide working at Volga River till Astrakhan port;
• "Volgo-Don Max" type; its dimensions correspond to dimensions of locks' chamber of Volgo-Don Shipping Canal. The maximal available cargo capacity is 4200-5500 tons for characterized river draught 3.60 m; the smallest value is for tug-barge trains with R1 class of RS; the biggest value is for vessels with M-PR 2.5 class of RRR. "Volgo-Don Max" vessels are able to operate at "Volgo-Balt Max" lines;
• "BBC Max" type; its dimensions correspond to way restrictions of Belomor-Baltic Canal; the maximal available cargo capacity is 2700-3000 tons for characterized river draught 3.60 m. Operation is foreseen at lines between river ports and Belomorsk port through Belomorsk-Baltic Canal with ability of sailing to White Sea. "BBC Max" vessels are able to operate at "Volgo-Balt Max" and "Volgo-Don Max" lines;
• "Lena" type; its dimensions correspond to way restrictions of Lena River and way restrictions of the way from possible building shipyard till sea entering point (e.g. from Volga shipyards through Volgo-Balt Waterway).
Today main tendency is building cargo vessels with enhanced river function for RF European inland waterways part, namely:
• mixed river-sea vessels of "Volga-Don Max" class with an increased river cargo capacity due to reasonable hull weight decreasing and accepting rational sailing region class (RS class notations R2-RSN 4.5, RRR class notation M-SP 4.5); e.g. RST25 tanker for Moscow River Shipping Company;
• "super fat" mixed river-sea vessels of "Volga-Don Max" type with highly increased river capacity; e.g RST27 tanker and other vessels based on her basis, including combined vessels and dry cargo ones;
• "estuary" river dry cargo vessels of "Volga-Don Max" class with lowered air draught, allowing to pass under the bridges of the Neva River, under the Rostov-on-Don railway bridge without drawing and also through Moscow River (famous RSD44 dry cargo vessel that was highly disputed and that earns very nice money, as it turned out);
• RST54 "estuary" river combined platform tankers (tanker and dry cargo vessel simultaneously) based on "super fat" contours of RST27 project; these vessel are intended for transportation of cargo that doesn't suffer from wetting (e.g. gravel, rolled metal, "heavy" containers, cars, etc.) towards one direction and oil products towards back direction (4 vessels were put into operation, 5 ones are under construction);
• combined tankers/dry cargo vessels in the meaning of classic philosophy of ore/oil carriers (oil is arranged in the tanks, dry cargo is arranged in holds) also on the basis of "super fat" contours; these vessel are intended for transportation of grain and other solid bulk general cargoes that require close hold - RST34 prj.;
• dry cargo vessels with long hold for oversized/heavy cargoes transportation; this feature have a significant influence on summarized financial result of such vessels' activity (RSD49, 003RSD04, DCV36 prjs.);
• composite vessels, when pushed barge is attached to the self-propelled vessel (tanker or dry cargo one); self-propelled vessel has to be equipped by corresponding fore end modernized for pushing. For example, there is river composite small-draught cargo vessels (working draught 1.40-2.35 m) for Eastern basins that fully use dimensions of Siberian Rivers; they are introduced as tanker variant (RT63 tanker pusher vessel plus ROB21A tanker barge ROB21) and also as combined variant (RT63A tanker/dry cargo pusher vessel plus ROB21A tanker/dry cargo barge);
• tug-barge trains (TBT) that provide significant advantages comparing with "single" vessel if transportation process is organized properly.
Within boundaries of the main types there are variants concerning RS and RRR classes such as R2, R2-RSN, R3-RSN, "M-SP", "M-PR" and "O-PR"; there are also composite vessels (tug-barge trains) for existing pusher tugs "OT-2000" and for perspective pusher tugs with smaller length for "river" or "marine" coupling unit.
It is shown that increasing of transportation ability of new concepts takes place due to:
• maximal usage of actual way characteristics (maximal available vessel's length and breadth);
• usage extremely fat hull contours, that have never used before in world's practice;
• increasing the nomenclature of transported cargoes by project cargoes, chemistry cargoes, combination of dry and liquid cargoes onboard single vessel (i.e. oil transportation in one direction and gravel backwards);
• decreasing of air draught that allows avoiding of running time loss for waiting of bridges drawing;
• usage of "rotator" effect when single pusher tug serves 2-3 barges;
• increasing profit of self-propelled vessel by attaching the pushed barge.