Lection and 12 bureau's reports at the International Conference TEAM-2015 in Vladivostok
The 29th International Scientific and Practical Shipbuilding Conference TEAM-2015 took place from October 12 till 15, 2015 in Vladivostok.
TEAM (Asian-Pacific Technical Exchange and Advisory Meeting on Marine Structures) is the most famous international shipbuilding conference in Asian-Pacific region (APR). Since 1987 conference TEAM-2010 has been held in one of the countries of APR (Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Russia), and also in Turkey.
TEAM-2015 (the same TEAM XXIX) was held by Maritime State University named after admiral G.I. Nevelskoy (Sergey Ogay is a rector of university).
82 specialists from leading shipyards and design bureaus of APR and universities of Russia (24), Korea (20), Japan (15), Taiwan (6), Turkey (2), Brazil (1) and 6 colleagues from Marine engineering Bureau (MEB) participated into work of TEAM-2015.
TEAM founding father is prof. M. Mano, famous Japan ship-builder. He has been the chief designer of IHI shipyard, his projects were used for building of more than tens Panamax and VLCC. He thought that TEAM should be not only theoretical conference, but people's meeting dedicated to the new vessels' designing, at that both leading engineers of Asian shipyards and researchers from main universities.
The special TEAM feature is personal participation of authors.
Simultaneously presence of big amount of serious specialists from different countries for whom English isn't native language gives opportunity to get experience and to try in speech.
The good tradition of the conference has become "training" of young, giving hope of naval architects and graduated students under father's supervision of masters of shipbuilding APR countries during reports.
Conference always attracts the attention of counties' and regions' representatives that are interested into branch development because of conference practical course and participation of science leaders of Asian shipbuilding into this conference.
Conference takes place every year:
2014 TEAM XXVIII Turkey (Istanbul);
2013 TEAM XXVII Taiwan (Keelung);
2012 TEAM XXVI Japan (Fukuoka);
2011 TEAM XXV Korea (Incheon);
2010 TEAM XXIV Russia (Vladivostok);
2009 TEAM XXIII Taiwan (Kaohsiung);
2008 TEAM XXII Turkey (Istanbul);
2007 TEAM XXI Japan (Yokohama);
2006 TEAM XX Korea (Seoul);
2005 TEAM XIX Singapore;
2004 TEAM XVIII Russia (Vladivostok);
2003 TEAM XVII Taiwan (ROC) (Tainan);
2002 TEAM XVI Japan (Kobe);
2001 TEAM XV Korea (Jochiwon);
2000 TEAM XIV Russia (Vladivostok);
1999 TEAM XIII Taiwan (ROC) (Keelung);
1998 TEAM XII Japan (Kanazawa);
1997 TEAM XI Singapore;
1996 TEAM X Korea (Pusan);
1995 TEAM IX Japan (Hiroshima);
1994 TEAM VIII Taiwan (ROC) (Taipei);
1993 TEAM VII Korea (Ulsan);
1992 TEAM VI Japan (Kure);
1991 TEAM V Korea (Jangseungpo);
1990 TEAM IV Japan (Onomichi);
1989 TEAM III Korea (Ulsan);
1988 TEAM II Japan (Kurashiki);
1987 TEAM I Korea (Chungmu).
Main reports of the conference were made by the Russian specialists (from Vladivostok, Komsomolsk-na-Amure, Nakhodka) Korean, Japanese and Chinese colleagues.
Marine Engineering Bureau participated actively in TEAM-2015 when submit for discussion of 12 reports with the most actual scientific and practical problems of shipbuilding to APR shipbuilding society.
In accordance with conference organizers' request, Marine Engineering Bureau general director, professor, Sc. Dr. Gennady Egorov introduced key lecture "The methodological foundations of creation of the river-sea and the sea-coaster ships in XXI Century".
The 1-hour lection was dedicated to the tremendous role of the river-sea vessels, restricted navigation ones and coasters (RNV) in the Russian economic; also some important practical aspects concerning RNV design were described.
In 2014 RNV transported 30.9 million tons of cargo only from river ports (31.3 million tons in 2013); biggest part was export cargoes. One may compare with marine transportation; in 2014 Russian marine shipping companies transported 15.6 million tons of cargo, i.e. twice less.
Taking into consideration that significant part of RNV have non-Russian registration, the role of these vessels is more important because exactly they provide transportation from small draught ports of Azov Sea. In 2014 transportation amounts were as follows: 10.2 million tons for Caucasus port, 6.3 million tons for Azov port, 4.0 million tons for Eysk port, 2.9 million tons for Taganrog port, 2.0 million tons for Temryuk port and 10.4 million tons for Rostov-on-Don port. On the Caspian Sea the transportation amount for grain, ferrous metal, break bulk and timber cargoes reached level of 3.5 million tons, for bulk liquid cargoes this indicator reached 4.4 million tons. Part of cargoes from of St.-Petersburg port, Arkhangelsk port and Far East ports are also transported by RNV. The "Northern Delivery" by the water transport (including RNV) was of 17,9 million tons; it is the significantly biggest part of cargoes transportation to the northern part of RF.
Such results are absolutely clear as the country possesses the worldwide biggest network of internal waterways of 101.7 thousand kilometers. The water transport serves 61 Russian regions in which about 90% of gross domestic product (GDP) are produced and 80% of the country's population live. River and river-sea fleet included 22740 vessels as for the March of 2015 (any vessels, from the smallest to large-capacity ones with deadweight 5000 tons and more) with the mean age of 33.2 years. Actually since 1980 these vessels' number became twice less; their mean age grew practically twice. Vessels' discarding have reached 800-1000 vessels a year (in the 2000s years). However prompt fleet degradation was stopped thanks to new shipbuilding in 2011-2014.
During 15 years of the new century (as of May 15, 2015), we received 309 cargo self-propelled vessels (dimension-significant ones). This amount consists of 301 vessels of marine restricted or mixed river- sea types and 8 ones of internal navigation type; if includes 162 tankers, 12 bunkering tankers, 3 the combined vessels and 132 dry cargo vessels.
Summarized statistic for new cargo vessels in 2000-2015.
Source is Marine Engineer Bureau.
|Year||Vessel's type||Totally: all vessels|
|"Volgo-Don Max" class||"Other" classes||Totally||"Volgo-Don Max" class||"Other" classes||Totally|
|2015||8|| ||8|| || || ||8|
|Built + under construction||133+15||45||178+15||48+3||83+3||131+6||309+21|
The vessels of "Volgo-Don Max" class, which are responsible for dimensions of the Volgo-Don Shipping Canal (VDSC) and intended for replacing of the famous soviet series "Volgoneft" and "Volgo-Dons" were and are the most demanded. "Volgo-Don Max" class vessels are universal for work at European part of Russian inland waterways due to their dimensions. For information, in 2013 a record cargo capacity was transported through VDSC, namely 12.7 million tons.
In total 181 this type vessels were constructed (or 59% of summarized number of new cargo vessels). Russian shipyards provided delivery of 125 this class dry cargo and tanker vessels (69%), Turkish shipyards provided 22 vessels, Chinese yards provided 20 vessels and Ukrainian shipyards provided 14 vessels.
Concerning other segments of water cargo fleet, 91 vessels (71%) were built in Russia, 19 ones were built in China and Vietnam, 17 ones were built in Turkey, single vessel was built in Ukraine.
Most of all, new generation vessels were discussed as they were constructed by projects developed after the 2000, as follows: more than 173 vessels (56%) were built due to Marine Engineering Bureau projects, 59 vessels (19%) were built due to projects of Volga-Caspian Bureau, and 25 vessels were built due to projects of "Vympel" Bureau (8%).
Thus 21 tankers of about 12000 tons deadweight were intended especially for the Caspian Sea (19169, 00210, 00230, 00260 prjs.). Besides, practically all series of the "Volgo-Don Max" type tankers are effectively used for work in the Caspian Sea conditions with full cargo loading, namely 005RST01, RST22, RST22M, RST25, RST27, 19612 and 19900 prjs., etc.; also smaller tankers sizes are used such as 0201L prj. ones.
Part of dry-cargo vessels' series also were designed taking into account need of large-size cargo transportation towards Caspian Sea, namely 9 RSD49 "Volgo-Don Max" type vessels, 12 003RSD04 "Caspian Express" type vessels. In the same place 005RSD03 and RSD18 vessels (totally 17 ones) successfully work with full cargo loading.
In what way was the new generation of river-sea vessels created? What principles were taken for the basis of XXI century vessels creating?
During discussion the first new generation design "Armada", the President of Palmali Group of Companies Mubariz Mansimov set a task to create of new universal tanker with reliable hull and equipment which will be economically effective at linear operation on internal RF waterways at the limited draughts at the Azov and Caspian Seas (main voyages Volgograd - Kerch and Volgograd (or Astrahan) - Neka); also this tanker has been able to operate in coastal areas of Europe, including transitions through bay of Biscay during the winter period with minimal losses of running time.
These vessels have been able to load same cargo amount as famous Volgoneft ones.
Other words, there must be vessels with quite equal river and marine abilities.
Conception of these vessels has been formulated in such way: there must be a tanker (then dry cargo vessel was added) with full usage of dimensions of Volgo-Don Shipping Canal; with maximal block coefficient that allows running ability point of view; with increased cargo capacity at minimal depth; with increased manoeuvrability in the constrained conditions, locks, canals and in the shallow waters; with proved operational reliability of hull structures at optimum metal consumption for the hull.
It was decided to use tankers of "Armada" first and second series as "shuttle" ones when "Lukoil" Company have prepared to oil production at Korchagin oil deposit. Accordingly, exactly marine function of the vessel was enhanced with insignificant decrease of river deadweight while forming idea of "New Armada" concept.
The principal distinguishing features of "New Armada" (RST22, RST22M) are as follows:
1. Taking into consideration not only formal requirements of Class and Conventions but also requirements of affreighters and the leading oil companies;
2. Increased ecological standard exceeding MARPOL requirements;
3. Stronger hull;
4. More powerful engines;
5. The modern equipment, including technological one;
6. Ability to work with FSO tankers;
7. The increased carrying capacity and tank capacity;
8. Wider nomenclature of carrying cargoes, including vegetable oils, ethylene glycol and etc.
As a result the following was realized:
• RS class R2 was accepted according to prospective transportation directions and to estimation of probable running time losses due to weather waiting; this class allows vessel's marine operation around Europe and in the Irish Sea. Tankers of the second "Armada" series have strength standard that corresponds to the requirements of the higher class, namely R1 in operation;
• ice category Ice1 (005RST01 prj.) was accepted according to the accumulated operational experience for the Azov and Caspian Seas; in view of vessels' operation in Baltic Sea the ice category has been raised up to level Ice2 (RST22 prj.);
• cargo capacity was increased due to growth of height of hull section (application of trunk at tankers or continues high coamings at dry cargo vessels); simultaneously expenses in domestic ports were reduce by the main dimension module and the overall sufficient longitudinal strength was provided for the accepted class without increase of thickness of the overwhelming majority of constructions in comparison with the minimal thickness due to RS Rules;
• block coefficient was raised up to 0.90 (and then to the worldwide record value of 0.932) in order to provide the maximal carrying capacity at the limited draughts (3.40 m for VDSC and 4.20 m - for port of Neka);
• due to full-turn rudder propellers usage enhanced manoeuvrability in the constrained conditions was provided, cargo zone length was enlarged, ER length was decreased by about 20%, cost and necessary mounting time were reduced as well as expected maintenance and repair cost;
• appoint identical, whenever possible, thickness of plates of web and ordinary structure elements and shell for providing equal wear durability (in application to the given project the idea was named "9 mm principle");
• sides and bottoms structures were design against operational loads, which in majority are considered till now "not design" (contacts to waterside structures, ground, etc.); in contrast to previously realized frame systems, RST22 hull has been completely made of longitudinal type amidship;
• keeping thickness of sheathing and shell at minimal ones level in order to minimize steel hull weight and to provide required local strength and steadiness due to rational application of the ordinary and web elements;
• structure elements inside cargo tanks are excluded (there are used an external structure of the upper deck and trunk, vertical corrugated transverse bulkheads);
• there are designed "smooth" flanges of hull girder with a minimum quantity of technological openings and weld fittings in order to increase in actual fatigue durability, usage rationally executed assemblies of structure element crossing and smooth change of the areas of longitudinal structure elements of the hull through its length;
• positive decision concerning requirements of the Regulation 25A of MARPOL is defined and CL longitudinal bulkhead is removed reducing metal consumption of the hull due to rational arrangement of ballast and dry compartments in double sides and double bottom;
• in accordance with new international requirements for vegetable oils transportation, RST22 prj. was created with meeting requirements of two-compartment flooding (damage at any place of vessel's length).
Later on, while building such universal "Volgo-Don Max" type tankers, new ideas have gone from customers concerning dealing with new market segments and with new specializations, satisfying local conditions including way ones.It was shown in the report, that accepting of main particulars for river-sea vessels is defined by way restrictions, strategy of future shipowner and his position in the market, adherence to some or other transport lines and cargo types. As usually, in contrast to dry cargo vessels, the most interesting decisions for tankers are those that provide the maximal cargo capacity for set conditions. Set cargo parts-dividing (3000 t, 5000 t) and specified draught are taken into consideration when accepting main particulars for dry cargo vessels.
The analysis of corresponding alternatives has allowed producing a parametric line of RNV that are objectively demanded by Russian shipowners and working out projects of new vessels of XXI century's concepts at Marine Engineering Bureau basing on this parametric line.
This parametric line of projects includes high demand for existing Russian market the following basic classes of RNV (self-propelled and tug-barge train ones):
• "Volgo-Balt Max" type; its dimensions correspond to way restrictions of Volgo-Balt Waterway, mostly to turn radiuses and dimensions of locks' chamber. The maximal available cargo capacity is 5000-6000 tons for characterized river draught 3.60 m. Vessel's dimensions and enhanced manoeuvrability (due to full-turn rudder propellers and bow thruster) provide working at Volga River till Astrakhan port;
• "Volgo-Don Max" type; its dimensions correspond to dimensions of locks' chamber of Volgo-Don Shipping Canal. The maximal available cargo capacity is 4200-5500 tons for characterized river draught 3.60 m; the smallest value is for tug-barge trains with R1 class of RS; the biggest value is for vessels with M-PR 2.5 class of RRR. "Volgo-Don Max" vessels are able to operate at "Volgo-Balt Max" lines;
• "BBC Max" type; its dimensions correspond to way restrictions of Belomor-Baltic Canal; the maximal available cargo capacity is 2700-3000 tons for characterized river draught 3.60 m. Operation is foreseen at lines between river ports and Belomorsk port through Belomorsk-Baltic Canal with ability of sailing to White Sea. "BBC Max" vessels are able to operate at "Volgo-Balt Max" and "Volgo-Don Max" lines;
• "Lena" type; its dimensions correspond to way restrictions of Lena River and way restrictions of the way from possible building shipyard till sea entering point (e.g. from Volga shipyards through Volgo-Balt Waterway).
Today main tendency is building cargo vessels with enhanced river function for RF European inland waterways part, namely:
• mixed river-sea vessels of "Volga-Don Max" class with an increased river cargo capacity due to reasonable hull weight decreasing and accepting rational sailing region class (RS class notations R2-RSN 4.5, RRR class notation M-SP 4.5); e.g. RST25 tanker for Moscow River Shipping Company;
• "super fat" mixed river-sea vessels of "Volga-Don Max" type with highly increased river capacity; e.g RST27 tanker and other vessels based on her basis, including combined vessels and dry cargo ones;
• "estuary" river dry cargo vessels of "Volga-Don Max" class with lowered air draught, allowing to pass under the bridges of the Neva River, under the Rostov-on-Don railway bridge without drawing and also through Moscow River (famous RSD44 dry cargo vessel that was highly disputed and that earns very nice money, as it turned out);
• RST54 "estuary" river combined platform tankers (tanker and dry cargo vessel simultaneously) based on "super fat" contours of RST27 project; these vessel are intended for transportation of cargo that doesn't suffer from wetting (e.g. gravel, rolled metal, "heavy" containers, cars, etc.) towards one direction and oil products towards back direction (4 vessels were put into operation, 5 ones are under construction);
• combined tankers/dry cargo vessels in the meaning of classic philosophy of ore/oil carriers (oil is arranged in the tanks, dry cargo is arranged in holds) also on the basis of "super fat" contours; these vessel are intended for transportation of grain and other solid bulk general cargoes that require close hold;
• dry cargo vessels with long hold for oversized/heavy cargoes transportation; this feature have a significant influence on summarized financial result of such vessels' activity;
• composite vessels, when pushed barge is attached to the self-propelled vessel (tanker or dry cargo one); self-propelled vessel has to be equipped by corresponding fore end modernized for pushing;
• tug-barge trains (TBT) that provide significant advantages comparing with "single" vessel if transportation process is organized properly.
The character feature of the new concepts is "expanding" narrow places of inland water transport by using new technical decisions. Saying in other words, transportation ability is increased by maximal usage of actual way characteristics (maximal available vessel's length and breadth), and mainly by usage extremely fat hull contours, that have never used before in world's practice. And at least, decreasing of air draught allows avoiding of running time loss for waiting of bridges drawing in St.-Petersburg and Rostov-on-Don and allows to work through Moscow River till the Yuzhniy port.
In 2009-2010 Marine Engineering Bureau developed (due to proposal made by Victor Olerskiy in 2005) RSD44 project of dry cargo vessel of "Geroi Stalingrada" type. On this basis there was developed also "estuary" river-sea tanker of "Volga-Don Max" type ("M-PR" class notation) with lowered air draught. This concept practically has no parts of wheel house or living deck-house overhanging above trunk; such construction allows to pass under bridges of Saint-Petersburg and Rostov-on-Don without their drawing. Hull weight decreasing and contours "fatness" rising were achieved due to lowering of sailing region level; this correspondingly provided enhanced cargo capacity for restricted river draughts (deadweight is 5520 tons for draught of 3.60 m). Vessels are named as "estuary" type because they will be able to operate at inland waterways, Finnish Gulf (Baltic Sea) and Azov Sea (till the Kerch Straits). Non-restricted under-bridge passing allows to save up to 20 days per navigation. But for this variant all-the-year-round operation is impossible due to low class.
That is why basing on results of special group (Rishard Bagautdinov was a leader) activity of UTA Holding in 2011 river-sea RST27 tanker project of "VF Tanker" type with "super fat" forms (with block coefficient 0.932) was developed using new theoretical decision of Marine Engineering Bureau investigations concerning possibility of block coefficient rising. Such tanker got enhanced river cargo capacity while keeping sailing region R2 and possibility for all-the-year-round operation (as for Armada series). Her deadweight became 5420 tons for draught of 3.60 m; such achievement equate this tanker to the "estuary" river ones (keeping marine deadweight 7000 tons as for universal tankers of RST22 and RST22M projects).
Later on, usage of RST54 concept of combined vessels (2013) that apart from other properties get "super fat" forms and "estuary" class notation "M-PR 2.5", provides, as follows:
• both directions cargo transportation (oil cargoes towards one direction and dry cargoes towards back direction);
• lowering highways rate by transportation of 200-280 passenger cars, that usually are brought from St.-Petersburg to central Russia by car transportation trucks;
• transportation of 120 containers (weight up to 36 tons) that are prohibited for car trains transportation due to unallowable road loads. Containers' number may include 45 refrigerating ones.
Tanker series under construction (RST22M, RST27, RST25) have got significantly increased range of carried liquid cargoes. Firstly cargoes with common name "vegetable oil" (including components of bio diesel, now famous palm oil etc.) were added to the crude oil and petroleum products. On the second stage other "light" chemical cargoes were added; nevertheless these cargoes required meeting of IMO 2 chemical tanker requirements due to damage stability, onboard equipment and cargo tanks' cover.
Within boundaries of the main types there are variants concerning RS and RRR classes such as R2, R2-RSN, R3-RSN, "M-SP", "M-PR" and "O-PR"; there are also composite vessels (tug-barge trains) for existing pusher tugs "OT-2000" and for perspective pusher tugs with smaller length for "river" or "marine" coupling unit.
There are several main shipyards which provided building of new cargo self-propelled vessels of mixed river-sea and restricted marine navigations; they are: the Nizhny Novgorod "Krasnoe Sormovo" Shipyard (87 vessels), Navashino "Oka Shipyard" (36 vessels), the Volgograd Shipyard (33 vessels), Petrozavodsk "Onega Shipyard"
(18 vessels), and also the Kherson Shipyard (16 vessels) and Nikolaev "Okean" Shipyard (9 vessels). In comparison with 2012-2013, tankers' building rate decreased and dry cargo vessels' building is fully frozen though it is far enough to the saturation of the new vessels market.
Despite decreasing of the ordered vessels number in the short-term prospect, medium-term prospect (since 2017) is quite clear: construction of new tankers and combined vessels will return to the level of 2012-2013. Anyway, we shall have to build new fleet equivalent to the existing fleet by transport capacity.
Among reports introduced at section's work, next reports were participated:
1. G.V. Egorov, I.A. Ilnitskiy
"Creation of new generation Sakhalin Arctic ferry for Vanino-Kholmsk line";
2. G.V. Egorov, O.A. Vorona, V.A. Cherniy
"Grigoriy Bugrov" tanker salvage operation execution with integrated approach to damage control with account of strength requirements";
"Analytic method of definition of geometric characteristics of inland or river-sea navigation dry-cargo vessel after receiving damage";
4. G.V. Egorov è Ya.V. Kalugin
"Line-up of new generation river-sea navigation cruise passenger vessels for Russian inland waterways";
5. G.V. Egorov, I.A. Ilnitskiy, V.I. Tonyuk
"Creation of new generation hull forms of "Volgo-Don max" class river-sea navigation vessels";
6. G.V. Egorov, N.V. Avtutov
"Updated line-up of new generation river-sea navigation dry-cargo vessels for Russian inland waterways";
7. G.V. Egorov, A.G. Egorov
"New shallow-draught river tug-barge combinations for Lena basin and other Siberian regions";
8. G.V. Egorov, V.I. Tonyuk
"Line-up of new generation river-sea navigation tankers for Russian inland waterways";
9. G.V. Egorov
"Main principles of river-sea navigation vessels design";
10. G.V. Egorov, I.A. Ilnitskiy, V.I. Tonyuk
"Grounding of possibility to build river-sea vessels with very high block coefficient";
11. A.G. Egorov
"Determination of "Dnieper-max" class vessels main particulars";
12. G.V. Egorov, D.V. Chernikov
"Modern Black sea cargo and cargo-passenger ferries".