Report "Today multifunctional auxiliary and technical vessels"
International Conference "Today port fleet as base of safety" took place in the St. Petersburg on 21.09.2015. Media-group "PortNews" conducted this conference with assistance of Damen Shipbuilding Group and several leading organization of the industry. More than hundred specialists participated in the Conference's workout; they represented port fleet operator companies, shipbuilding and design companies, shipping companies, agency and insurance companies, also Classification Societies and state customer organizations.
15 reports was introduced concerning the following directions:
• services market of the port fleet at the Russian ports;
• ice-breaking and towing assistance providing;
• bunkering and ecologic fleet.
Marine Engineering Bureau general director, professor, Sc. Dr. Gennady Egorov introduced report "Today multifunctional auxiliary and technical vessels".
1. In the report it is noted that auxiliary-technical fleet which provides the increasing goods turnover of marine ports, incorporates the vessels constructed generally in the USSR. The paradox is that this fleet is the same port one (only grew old and reduced) which allowed the Soviet Union to handle by transshipment the same cargo capacity that was reached by Russian ports already in 2009.
Port fleet designed in 70-80s years of previous century is subject to physical aging, wearing of constructions, systems, gear and mechanisms; but besides port fleet suffers from moral aging. It concerns practically all aspects, beginning from compliance to the international requirements (e.g. MARPOL, ILO Conventions), Classification Societies Rules, sanitary standards, and completing by uneconomical engines, vessel's hull of small ice categories, minimal automation level and big crews. Moreover, modern vessels as a rule are of multifunctional type, i.e. additionally to the main function tugboats provide fire-fighting ability, buoy vessels provide oil spill functions, water depth measuring, pilots and cargoes delivery etc. Other words, in the XXI century there are being built less "platforms", but they become more complex and saturated, including possibility to change of functions due to usage of removable modules.
Only berths and warehouses cannot provide work of ports, sooner or later exactly the lack of port fleet becomes a "narrow" place in ensuring foreign trade of the country.
2. By September, 2015 at the expense of the federal budget a set of vessels was received from the industry: 24 salvage vessels for FBE "Marine Salvage Service of RosMorRechFlot", 54 buoy vessels, 3 bunkering tankers and 2 ecological vessels for FSE "Rechvodput", 4 supply vessels of "Sosnovka" type for Kamchatka. Some vessels are under building now: 6 ice breakers by request of FSUE "Rosmorport" and FSUE "Atomflot" and 15 vessels for emergency response readiness.
Further construction of salvage and hydrographic vessels, and also auxiliary river fleet is supposed.
Totally 38 vessels were constructed, 15 ones are under building at different degree of readiness and 3 ones are in the nearest building plans in the segment of marine and river ice breakers, salvage and ecological vessels.
3. Already for date of preparation of the Federal Purpose Program (FPP) "Development of RF transport system (2010-2015)" the listed above vessels was obviously not enough for a solving the problem of old fleet replacement for all requirements range (bunkering tankers weren't considered at all; there were not enough tugboats, pilot boats, etc.).
Carried out in the middle - the end of the first decade of a new century the analysis of the approved FPP, programs and plans of the state and large private companies showed that summary "minimum" requirements could be estimated approximately as 6 ice-breakers, 40 vessels for emergency response readiness, 50 buoy vessels and vessels for the state responsibility in ports, up to 80 vessels for commercial work in ports (tugboats, bunkering ones, dredges), about 350 vessels for ensuring operation of internal waterways.
It's clear that it's impossible to solve a problem of port fleet renewing at the expense of the state budget; moreover, such idea is improper because commercial problems should be solved by commercial means.
Legislative state support, FPP "Development of RF transport system", activization of the state leasing companies allowed to start already in 2008 activity for restoration of merchant fleet in a zone of state responsibility (technical fleet), and then (since 2010) in those commercial segments which were not financed earlier by business structures because of is unreal long payback periods.
4. It isn't correct to say that it was nothing done concerning this problem by business at all. Shipbuilding yard "Pella" constructed 43 tugboats (27% of total number) for various civil customers since 2003 till now. Vessels belong to the standard projects 90600, 16609, 90608 with an equipment variation.
Ports acquired 38 tugboats (24% of all new tows) from the Dutch company "Damen" that is leading worldwide special purpose vessels builder. 16 more this kind vessels were constructed for the Russian private clients by the Kranship Company. These 3 leaders built 97 vessels or 61% of the total amount of tugboats orders.
In total it was received 159 marine and river tugboats and pushers in a wide power range from 3-5 MW for escort tugboats till 110 kW for small towing crafts. The noticeable part of these vessels can carry out icebreaking and rescue functions, has additional functions such as fire-fighting, delivering of pilots and other passengers to the port roads, transportation of some deck cargoes.
5. The general need for bunkering vessels for Russia was estimated approximately at 100 units. Researches of modern foreign prototypes allow to note the following tendencies of bunkering vessels development:
• ensuring multifunctionality of the vessel, i.e. availability for linear transportation;
• arrangement of oil spill equipment (generally for port road vessels);
• decrease in construction cost due to the maximal simplification of hull contours (for port vessels);
• restriction of draught and air draught (for vessels in estuarial ports).
Actually, 15 new bunkering tankers were received and 4 ones more are at different degree of readiness at shipyards.
In the report there is given information concerning construction of new dry-cargo vessels - suppliers (7 ones were built including 4 widely known "Sosnovka" type ones), that also can be classified as auxiliary vessels as they are also used for unloading of marine vessels at roads of ports with small depths and no berths.
6. In this century a set of vessels were built: 75 buoy vessels, 5 dredges, 5 float cranes, 15 running boats, floating berths; more than 160 crafts including 15 pilot, buoy and working ones for FSUE Rosmorport. Also in accordance with Rosmorport order, more 3 buoy vessels and 10 crafts are under building.
As of the beginning of September, 2015 in the XXI century the cargo RF fleet has received 322 auxiliary and technical marine and river vessels, including: 3 marine and river ice-breakers; 38 salvage, diving, fire and ecological vessels; 159 tugboats and pushers, 15 bunkering vessels, 7 dry-cargo supply vessels, 75 buoy vessels, 5 dredges, 5 float cranes, 15 running vessels, and also more than 160 crafts.
There are vessels under construction: 8 ice-breakers, 15 vessels for emergency response readiness, 4 bunkering vessels, 3 buoy vessels, more than 10 working and pilot crafts. It is necessary to recognize however that it is still far to full renewing of auxiliary and technical civil fleet; considerable investments from customers and efforts of the industry are required for the solution of this problem.