Analysis and prospects of cargo shipbuilding at Russian river shipyards, including Siberian and Far East ones
The Director General of Marine Engineering Bureau, professor Gennady Egorov introduced report "Analysis and prospects of cargo shipbuilding at Russian river shipyards, including Siberian and Far East ones" on 21.05.2015 during workout of the V International Forum "Marine Industry of Russia".
Results of the analysis of Russian water transport fleet incoming for the XXI century are presented in the report; for the middle of March, 2015 more than 2500 vessels and boats were received. Research was conducted on all components: mixed river-sea vessels and river cargo self-propelled ones (309 units); non-self-propelled barges (226 units); tug-pushers and tugboats (50 units); cruise, pleasure, passenger vessels and ferryboats for local lines (170 units); buoy-laying, salvage and fire vessels, ecological vessels (totally technical and auxiliary vessels more than 100 units); boats of different function. The positive influence for dynamics of the new shipbuilding by the adopted law concerning support of navigation and shipbuilding on is noted. Essential influence of all-economic and weather factors and the adjacent transport branches (railway, automobile and pipeline transports) on orders for river shipbuilding is shown. The main recommendations concerning the perspective directions of development of water transport fleet are formulatedá namely "super full", composite and combined vessels. The special attention was paid to shipyards and needs of Siberia, the Far East and the North of RF.
Basic provisions of the report are as follows:
1. In 1980 the domestic water transport fleet included 48000 vessels with mean age of 14.9 years; in 1990 it included 44654 vessels with 18.9 years as a result of "re-building"; in 2000 there were 32334 vessels with 24.5 years; in March, 2015 there were 22740 vessels with 33.2 years. Actually in 35 years vessels' number became twice less, but vessel's mean age grew practically twice. Thus discarding (in the 2000s years) reached 800-1000 vessels a year.
However prompt fleet degradation was stopped. Last three years the number of vessels NOT DECREASES and mean age DOES NOT GROW: in 2012 there were 22440 vessels with mean age of 33.3 years; in 2013 there were 22462 vessels with 33,27 years, in 2014 there were 22678 vessels with 33,26 years.
2. This quite positive phenomenon exists generally thanks to the new shipbuilding. In the XXI century 2541 vessels and boats of all types were received generally from domestic shipyards; some objects' types were registered at the State Inspection of the Small-Dimensions Fleet. On average about 180 objects were put into operation annually.
3. It is clear that it were constructed much less significant vessels. In 15 years of the new century (as of May 15, 2015), we received 309 cargo self-propelled vessels. This amount consists of 301 vessels of marine restricted or mixed river- sea types and 8 ones of internal navigation type; if includes 162 tankers, 12 bunkering tankers, 3 the combined vessels and 132 dry cargo vessels.
The vessels of "Volgo-Don Max" class, which are responsible for dimensions of the Volgo-Don Shipping Canal (VDSC) and intended for replacing of the famous soviet series "Volgoneft" and "Volgo-Dons" were and are the most demanded. "Volgo-Don Max" class vessels are universal for work at European part of Russian inland waterways due to their dimensions. For information, in 2013 a record cargo capacity was transported through VDSC, namely 12.7 million tons.
In total 181 this type vessels were constructed (or 59% of summarized number of new cargo vessels). Russian shipyards provided delivery of 125 this class dry cargo and tanker vessels (69%), Turkish shipyards provided 22 vessels, Chinese yards provided 20 vessels and Ukrainian shipyards provided 14 vessels.
Concerning other segments of water cargo fleet, 91 vessels (71%) were built in Russia, 19 ones were built in China and Vietnam, 17 ones were built in Turkey, single vessel was built in Ukraine.
Most of all, new generation vessels were discussed as they were constructed by projects developed after the 2000, as follows: more than 173 vessels (56%) were built due to Marine Engineering Bureau projects, 59 vessels (19%) were built due to projects of Volga-Caspian Bureau ("Krasnoe Sormovo" bureau), and 25 vessels were built due to projects of "Vympel" Bureau.
Thus 21 tankers of about 12000 tons deadweight were intended especially for the Caspian Sea (19169, 00210, 00230, 00260 prjs.). Besides, practically all series of the "Volgo-Don Max" type tankers are effectively used for work in the Caspian Sea conditions with full cargo loading, namely 005RST01, RST22, RST22M, RST25, RST27, 19612 and 19900 prjs., etc.; also smaller tankers sizes are used such as 0201L prj. ones.
Part of dry-cargo vessels' series also were designed taking into account need of large-size cargo transportation towards Caspian Sea, namely 9 RSD49 "Volgo-Don Max" type vessels, 12 003RSD04 "Caspian Express" type vessels. In the same place 005RSD03 and RSD18 vessels (totally 17 ones) successfully work with full cargo loading.
4. Certainly, besides construction of large-capacity self-propelled cargo fleet, after 2000 delivery of other cargo vessels was carried out in Russia; totally 226 barges, 50 tug-pushers and tugboats were delivered mostly for Eastern basins.
61 non-self-propelled barges of "Volgo-Don Max" type were constructed, as follows: 51 mixed river-sea barges (including 28 tanker ones) and 10 dry-cargo one of "M" class.
In other classes 165 barges were constructed due to according to 65 projects (!!!), including 46 tanker ones, 94 platform barges (57%), 18 platform barges adapted for automobiles transportation (most often with ramps), 7 ones with holds or deck bunker (including 6 ones of mixed river-sea type).
125 units of fleet (76%) were intended for Eastern basins, all of them were built at local shipyards, e.g. in Krasnoyarsk (46 barges, generally at the Krasnoyarsk Shipyard) and in Tyumen (19 barges, generally by TyumenSudokomlekt).
22 tugboats from total number of 50 are are intended for barge pushing, other ones are intended for towage and ship-handling works in ports or their roads.
There were built 30 vessels for work in Siberia and the Far East, 8 vessels for the European North (Arkhangelsk and adjacent areas).
Thus only 8 tug-pushers of 1400-1840 kW are intended for pushing of "Volgo-Don Max" type barges. Other tugboats and tug-pushers have considerably smaller capacity: in the range 400-600 kW there are 17 vessels, the others are 250kW or less.
5. In the XXI century Russian water transport received about 200 passenger vessels, ferryboats and running boats.
170 constructed passenger vessels include, as follows: 115 pleasure vessels (68%), generally for St. Petersburg; 5 cruise passenger vessels ("Alexander Green", "Rus Velikaya" and three "Sura" type vessels), 20 vessels for local lines (16 ones for Siberia, 2 ones for Arkhangelsk), 30 self-propelled and non-self-propelled cargo-passenger ferryboats (16 ones for Eastern basins, 4 ones for the North of the European part).
Thus, a number of vessels were constructed generally in Eastern and Northern regions for providing communication tasks, as follows: 20 passenger vessels, 30 ferryboats and 18 Ro-Ro barges with ramps which also often used at crossings.
6. The river auxiliary and technical fleet also was constructed. For May 15, 2015 a number of vessels was put into operation: 71 buoy-laying vessels; 20 diving, fire and salvage vessels; 3 ecological vessels, 1 river ice-breaker and other vessels (totally about 100 units). More than a half of vessels were constructed by orders of FSE "Rechvodput" (that is subordinated to RosMorRechFlot). Federal Purpose Program "Development of RF transport system foresees construction about 400 auxiliary river vessels.
7. Also more than 300 different function boats were constructed.
8. There are several main shipyards which provided building of new cargo self-propelled vessels of mixed river-sea and restricted marine navigations; they are: the Nizhny Novgorod "Krasnoe Sormovo" Shipyard (87 vessels), Navashino "Oka Shipyard" (36 vessels), the Volgograd Shipyard (33 vessels), Petrozavodsk "Onega Shipyard" (18 vessels), and also the Kherson Shipyard (16 vessels) and Nikolaev "Okean" Shipyard (9 vessels).
9. According to RosMorRechFlot information, the total cargo transportation amount of inland water transport was 142.1 million tons in 2012 (growth by 12.2% in comparison with 2011), 136.9 million tons in 2013 (24% of the 1988 level), 124,5 million tons in 2014 (21% of the level of 1988).
The greatest decreasing of cargo flow was observed at internal waterways of RF Unified Deep-Water System in the direction toward Volga-Baltic Waterway, and also at Yeniseisk and Baykal-Angarsk basins of Siberia. Decrease of transportation amount happened for internal mode (for 11.7%), such as for foreign mode (for 1.2%).
For the foreign mode cargo transportation decreased generally due to enterprises at Volgo-Baltic Basin (by 14.3% decrease down to 7.8 million t) and Kamsk Basin (by 21.2% decrease down to 2.6 million t).
The main cargo flow decreasing at RF inland waterways was met at 40 km part from Gorodetsk locks Nos. 15-16 till Balakhna. Only every fourth day vessels with draught 2.5 m were able to sail through there; in general only sailing with draught 1.9 m was provided. One may take into consideration that ensured vessel's draught is 3.6 m.
This year the situation in the southern part became complicated significantly too. Due to the predicted low-water at Lower Don, the Don Basin Waterway Administration developed working regime for Tsimlyansk Reservoir which will provide depths about 3.00 m.
One may understand that underloading of Volgo-Don Max vessel for 60 cm (i.e 3.00 m instead of 3.60 m) means cargo capacity loss of 1200-1350 t.
RosMorRechFlot made considerable efforts for elimination of "narrow" places, for example, building of the Nizhny Novgorod low pressure node is planned in 2016-2020; this facility has to solve Gorodetsk problem. Also the building second line of the Nizhne-Svirskiy lock has to be handed over by 2017; the documents' package for justification of the low pressure node on the Don River at the Bagayevskiy District is prepared.
However it is difficult to not argue with bad forecasts concerning low-water for the next decade.
10. Therefore new effective in such conditions technical solutions in design of river and river-sea of vessels are required, including::
• super-fat vessels with the worldwide record block coefficient (> 0.9) for self-propelled vessels;
• composite vessels (self-propelled vessels + attached barges) and tug-barge trains with the maximal available dimensions due to way restrictions;
• combined vessels that are provided by cargo for voyages towards both end;
• vessels with lowered air draught; that permits to save operational time due to passing under bridges without drawing.
11. Marine Engineering Bureau has prepared such new cargo vessels for RF inland waterways which "expands" narrow places of inland water transport and significantly enhance their own economic results by using new technical decisions, as follows:
• RST12 and RST25 mixed river-sea tankers of "Volga-Don Max" type with an increased river cargo capacity due to reasonable hull weight decreasing and accepting rational sailing region class (RS class notations R2-RSN 4.5, RRR class notation M-SP 4.5);
• RST27 "super fat" mixed river-sea tankers of "Volga-Don Max" type with highly increased river capacity;
• RSD44 "estuary" river dry cargo vessels of "Volga-Don Max" type with lowered air draught, allowing to pass under the bridges of the Neva River, under the Rostov-on-Don railway bridge without drawing and also through Moscow River;
• RST54 river combined platform tankers based on "super fat" RST27 contours; these vessels are intended for transportation of cargo that doesn't suffer from wetting (e.g. gravel, rolled metal, "heavy" containers, cars, etc.) towards one direction and oil products towards back direction;
• RSD62 "super fat" mixed river-sea dry cargo vessels with highly increased river capacity based on RST27 contours. These vessels have sufficient RS class for seasonal work at the Northern Marine Way and fine ice properties in order to return to the base in the conditions of ice formation and ice thickness up to 40 cm. They represent certain symbiosis of "Sibirskiy" and "Volga-Don", with sizes of "Volga-Don Max" type and with higher sailing area class than RSD44 has ("the M-SP 3,5 against M-PR 2,5") and ice category ("Ice 40 against "Ice 20");
• RSD49 mixed river-sea dry cargo vessels of "Volga-Don Max" class intended either for classical transportation of the mass cargoes or for river transportation (or Caspian transit) of oversized cargoes from European marine ports due to special long middle cargo hold of 60 m length;
• tug-barge trains (TBT) that provide significant advantages comparing with "single" vessel if transportation process is organized properly;
• river composite small-draught cargo vessels (working draught 1.40-2.35 m) for Eastern basins that fully use dimensions of Siberian Rivers; they are introduced as dry-cargo variant (RD63 dry cargo pusher vessel plus RDB21 dry-cargo barge), tanker variant (RT63 tanker pusher vessel plus ROB21 tanker barge) and also as combined variant (RT63A tanker/dry cargo pusher vessel plus ROB21A tanker/dry cargo barge).