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03.03.15 20:35
The report "Creation of new generation of effective vessels for water transport" at meeting of the Public Advisory Transport Council


On March 3, 2015 in Nizhny Novgorod meeting "Implementation of strategy of RF inland water transport development for the period till 2030" of the Public Advisory Transport Council "round table" has taken place. There were about a hundred of participants, such as managers of water transport organizations, shipbuilding shipyards, universities and design institutes.
 
The Vice-President of the Union of Russian Transporters Evgeniy Kazantsev was a chairman; the following high managers participated in the meeting: Deputy Minister of RF Transport Victor Olerskiy, the president of the "Russian Chamber of Shipping" Union Alexey Klyavin, the president of the "Ports and Shipowners Association" Alexander Zaytsev, professor of Moscow State Academy of Water Transport Leonid Bagrov (former RSFSR Minister of River Transport in 1978-1990), the Director of the Department of the ship-building industry and marine equipment of the Industry and Trade Ministry Boris Kabakov, the Deputy Head of Rosmorrechflot Vladimir Vovk, the Chairman of the Board of Directors of OJSC "Volga Shipping Company" Rishat Bagautdinov, the Chairman of the Board of Directors of OJSC "Moscow River Shipping Company" Vadim Berezin and other colleagues.
 
The Director General of Marine Engineering Bureau, professor Gennady Egorov introduced the report "Creation of new generation of effective vessels for water transport of Russia".
 
It was noted that after death of the USSR the water transport system has appeared in difficult situation because economy change from plan to "market" type has led to alternation of all logistics, especially regarding parts-dividing that has removed many cargoes and the transport flows directions "river".
 
Thus river transport is one of the safest types of transport. According to the special European Union Commission that study problems of European inland waterways development, it is noted that damages due to river transport accidents are by 178 times less than because of heavy-load vehicles crashes, and by 13 times less than railway accidents.
 
River transport is energy saving type of transport with low level of the and water contamination. The railway locomotive consumes energy by 8 times more, and the heavy-load vehicle by 26 times more than the river cargo vessel per 1 ton of the transported cargo.
 
Legislative support from the state, implementation of Federal Purpose Program "Development of RF transport system (2010-2015)" and activity rising of the state leasing companies have allowed to begin in 2010 work due to recovery of the river fleet in zone of the state responsibility (technical fleet) and in those commercial segments which have not been financed earlier by business structures because of unreal long payback periods.
 
Thus the major factors affecting to the terms of payback are, as follows:
 
• depths (loss of ten centimeters of draught for the "Volga-Don Max" vessel is equivalent to 210-220 tons underloading), especially near Gorodets;
• seasonality of inland waterways work;
• bandwidth of "bottlenecks" (gateways, bridges).
 
About 265 mixed river-sea going cargo vessels, 15 tugs and tug-pushers and 50 river barges were built during 14 years of the new century (as for 1st of October, 2015).
 
The vessels of "Volga-Don Max" class, which are responsible for dimensions of the Volga-Don Shipping Canal (VDC) and intended for replacing of the famous soviet series "Volgoneft" and "Volga-Dons" were and are the most demanded. "Volga-Don Max" class vessels are universal for work at European part of Russian inland waterways due to their dimensions.
 
Mostly discussion was about new generation vessels, because they were built by projects developed after the 2000, as follows: more than 160 vessels were built due to Marine Engineering Bureau projects, 54 vessels were built due to projects of Volga-Caspian Bureau ("Krasnoe Sormovo" bureau), and 25 vessels were built due to projects of "Vympel" Bureau.
 
This moment process of building of new cargo vessels for European part of Russian inland waterways is starting; the character feature of the new concepts is "expanding" narrow places of inland water transport by using new technical decisions:
 
• RST12 and RST25 mixed river-sea tankers of "Volga-Don Max" class with an increased river cargo capacity due to reasonable hull weight decreasing and accepting rational sailing region class (RS class notations R2-RSN 4.5, RRR class notation M-SP 4.5);
• RST27 "super fat" mixed river-sea tankers of "Volga-Don Max" class project with highly increased river capacity;
• RSD44 "estuary" river dry cargo vessels of "Volga-Don Max" class with lowered air draught, allowing to pass under the bridges of the Neva River, under the Rostov-on-Don railway bridge without drawing and also through Moscow River;
• RST54 river combined platform tankers based on "super fat" contours of RST27 project; these vessel are intended for transportation of cargo that doesn't suffer from wetting (e.g. gravel, rolled metal, "heavy" containers, cars, etc.) towards one direction and oil products towards back direction;
• RSD62 "super fat" mixed river-sea dry cargo vessels with highly increased river capacity based on contours of RST27 project. These vessels have sufficient RS class for seasonal work at the Northern Marine Way and fine ice properties in order to return to the base in the conditions of ice formation and ice thickness up to 40 cm. They represent certain symbiosis of "Sibirskiy" and "Volga-Don", with sizes of "Volga-Don Max" class and with higher sailing area class than RSD44 has ("the M-SP 3,5 against M-PR 2,5") and ice category ("Ice 40 against "Ice 20");
• RSD49 mixed river-sea dry cargo vessels of "Volga-Don Max" class intended either for classical transportation of the mass cargoes or for river transportation (or Caspian transit) of oversized cargoes from European marine ports due to special long middle cargo hold of 60 m length;
• TBT that provide significant advantages comparing with "single" vessel if transportation process is organized properly;
• river composite small-draught cargo vessels (working draught 1.40-2.35 m) for Eastern basins that fully use dimensions of Siberian Rivers; they are introduced as dry-cargo variant (RD63 dry cargo pusher vessel plus RDB21 dry-cargo barge), tanker variant (RT63 tanker pusher vessel plus ROB21 tanker barge) and also as combined variant (RT63A tanker/dry cargo pusher vessel plus ROB21A tanker/dry cargo barge).
 
Transportation ability is increased by maximal usage of actual way characteristics (maximal available vessel's length and breadth), and mainly by usage extremely fat hull contours, that have never used before in world's practice. And at least, decreasing of air draught allows avoiding of running time loss for waiting of bridges drawing in St.-Petersburg and Rostov-on-Don and allows to work through Moscow River till the Yuzhniy port.
 
Later on, usage of RST54 combined vessels that apart from other properties get "super fat" forms and "estuary" class notation "M-PR 2.5", provides, as follows:
 
• both directions cargo transportation (oil cargoes towards one direction and dry cargoes towards back direction);
• lowering highways rate by transportation of 200-280 passenger cars, that usually are brought from St.-Petersburg to central Russia by car transportation trucks;
• transportation of 120 containers (weight up to 36 tons) that are prohibited for car trains transportation due to unallowable road loads. Containers' number may include 45 refrigerating ones.
 
Quite different situation was formed in the Siberian and at the North of the European part of Russia.
 
One of decisions which allow working effectively in the conditions of shallow water of Eastern basins is creation of composite vessels (i.e. cargo vessels with attached barges).
 
The matter is that the bigger vessel loading in specific way conditions means the bigger efficiency of this vessel. In fact, "Max" concepts give the greatest profit to the future shipowner, and not only for oil products or grain transit, but also for passenger transportation. Feature of Eastern basins is that the maximum sizes of the vessel or TBT are defined not by locks, but by manoeuvrability conditions (radiuses of turns, fairway width). Additionally general "trouble" of the inland waterways must be noted, i.e. insufficient depths.
 
But fully use maximum dimensions that way conditions allow for the single hull (length as a rule) is possible not always. Imagine non-TBT river vessel of about 170-200 m length with draught, for example, 1.40-2.35 m (and 3.60 m too). It is clear that general strength of such hull won't be provided. Actually this reason was the main for appearance of composite vessels (strength of the TBT parts of smaller length can be provided easier).
 
Besides, at the non-regulated rivers way conditions are function of season and weather. Not always it is possible to realize the maximum dimensions, but the ability is kept. When there is "high" water composite vessels can sail in design view. In other situations, for example, on the "side" rivers, TBT will be divided into parts, then the self-propelled vessel will work independently; the attached barge also will work independently in coupling with tug-pusher.
 
Composite vessel can partially realize the "rotator" scheme, leaving barge in the port of call and taking there taking another barge. The non-self-propelled barge can be used for some time as floating storage, etc.
 
In many cases, seaworthiness and corresponding main engines capacity foresaw for concept of self-propelled vessel become excess for specific river part of the route, particularly vessels' speed is restricted at the considerable part of inland waterways (engines' capacity is defined in order to provide safe work at sea or lakes, including storm reserve or is defined accounting the biggest current's speed). Attached barge availability on certain route's parts allows using this excess of engines' capacity (even with decreasing of whole TBT speed). It is clear that for such work in TBT condition, the increased crew productivity is required because number of crewmembers of self-propelled vessel will be identical for working with barge or without her.
 
Thus, the composite vessel allows improving usage of inland waterways' bandwidth especially at Siberian Rivers.
 
For example, composite vessel RT63+ROB21 (consists of tanker and barge) has deadweight 4788 t at draught 2.35 m; at draught 1.80 deadweight is 3280 t; at draught 1.40 deadweight is 2195 t. Deadweight's values are significantly bigger than existing fleet has. Accordingly, despite increasing thickness of hull elements and appearing of additional constructions such as double bottom and double sides, specific transportation self-cost will decrease about 10-15% comparing with existing vessels.
 
Another problem of "northern delivery" is the fact that practically all dry cargoes in the region from Chukotka to Taimyr are delivered by river-sea "Siberian" type vessels from Tiksi Port and river ports of Lena River. The problem of renewing of such dry cargo vessel is very urgent. But the decision is not as obvious as it seems; one may decide to redesign existing vessel in accordance with today's requirements or at least to use existing vessel as prototype from the point of view of dimensions and hull shape. And then he may simply build new vessels.
 
But the navigation period is too small. Respectively payback period on newly constructed vessels exceeds life time of these vessels without significant growth in transportation rates; so the project becomes not commercial. Certainly, it is possible to shift this choice to shoulders of the government and to wait for the budget financing.
 
New multipurpose dry-cargo river-sea vessel is developed; she is better than "Sibirskiy" ones due to cargo capacity in t6he wide region of working draughts (2.50 - 3.50 m). She corresponds to the maximal dimensional restricts of ship-repairing abilities of Lena River. She has suitable Register class (due to sailing region) for seasonal work at the Northern Marine Way and sufficient ice properties in order to be able to return to the base in the ice-forming conditions when ice thickness is of 40 cm. From the other side, new vessels are effective at the transport lines at the European RF part where "Volgo-Don" vessels are worked now (i.e. from river ports towards port roads transshipment complexes of Kerch and Gulf of Finland).
 
A certain symbiosis between "Sibirskiy" and "Volgo-Don" vessel's types was defined; she has dimensions as "Volgo-Don" ones but higher class due to sailing region than RSD44 has (M-SP 3.5 versus M-PR 2.5) and due to ice class (Ice 40 versus Ice 20). It is clear that today the best hull shape for such vessels' class are the so-called "superfull" contours used for RST27, RST54, RST12 and RST28 projects.
 
As a result, the new RSD62 concept has more effective technical and economic characteristics than "Sibirskiy" type (292 and 0225 prj.); the same time she is better than 507B, 1565 ("Volgo-Don") and 05074 ("Volzhskiy") vessels possessing higher strength standard than existing vessels.
 
The initial stage is characterized by existence of still operating "Sibirskiy" type vessels with satisfactory technical condition that can provide "northern" delivery. So during the initial stage it is possible to use new RSD62 vessels for work at RF European part on the lines usual for the "Volga-Don Max" vessels; thereby this will provide payback in significantly more attractive terms.
 
As far as discarding northern fleet vessels, the RSD62 ones will arrive to the northern basic shipping companies and change "Sibirskiy" type ones at "northern" delivery. Thereby safe marine sailing along Yakutsk coast between estuaries of Kolyma, Indigirka, Yana and Lena Rivers.
 
But it is necessary to understand accurately that vessels for the RF European part are under construction, but there is no such activity for eastern regions. The problem of shipbuilding start for Siberia is extremely actual and requires the special attention. It is already clear what to build, vessel's projects are available; but the main problem "by whose account to build" is unresolved.
 
The main Russian shipyards that provided building of mixed river-sea vessels (pure river vessels practically were not built till 2010) were the Nizhny Novgorod "Krasnoe Sormovo Shipyard" (85 vessels), the Navashino "Oka Shipyard" (35 vessels), the Petrozavodsk "Onega Shipyard" (18 vessels) and the Volgograd Shipyard (33 vessels).
 
Due to the below table, at this moment Krasnoe Sormovo Shipyard, Oka Shipyard and Nevskiy Shipyard possess the biggest real potential.
 
Vessels built at the leading shipyards (years distribution)
 
Shipyards Years
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Krasnoe Sormovo Shipyard* 4 2 4 6 6 5 6 7 7 6 7 9 10 2 4
Oka Shipyard 3 2 1 1 1 3 8 8 7 1
Nevskiy Shipyard 2 5
Volgograd Shipyard 2 1 3 4 5 4 3 6 3 1 1
Onega Shipyard 3 3 2 3 3 4 1
Kherson Shipyard 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 4
Ocean Shipyard 1 4 4
Zelenodolsk Shipyard 1 1 2
Brothers Nobel Shipyard 1 2 1
Lotos Shipyard 2
Upper-Kama Shipyard 1 1
Aksay Don-Kassens Shipyard 1 1
Total 6 3 7 10 12 17 19 23 17 14 16 18 23 23 9
note: * - "MNP" manager company

Source: Marine Engineering Bureau.
 
Conclusion
 
1. The intensification of renewing process of river transport in whole and river fleet in particular is required.
In order to accelerate river shipbuilding, the leading Russian shipowners consider that it is necessary to recover action of the Government Act due to compensation of 2/3 interest rates for the credits and suggest to establish Vessel's Utilization Grant, i.e. lump sum to shipping company for old fleet utilization; this grant should be able to use for building or buying of the new vessel.
 
2. The mixed river-sea going vessels (dry cargo type and tankers) which are intended to change "Volgo-Don" and "VolgoNeft" type ones at the lines that are oriented to transport raw resources from Russian river ports to transshipment complexes at ports in Finnish Gulf and Kerch Straits and same ones which are intended to change "Sibirskiy" and "LenaNeft" type ones at river-sea transportations of the "northern delivery" are the most demanded.
 
New vessels have to differ qualitatively from existing ones (which ideology was developed in the 50s of former century) first of all by higher efficiency, ecological compatibility and reliability.
 
3. The character feature of new concepts is "expanding" narrow places of inland water transport by using new technical decisions.
 
Herewith practically all shipyards completed (or are about) their contracts.