New river-sea RSD62 dry cargo vessel with deadweight 5640 t and Ice 40 category for the "northern" delivery
Mixed river-sea transportation of dry cargoes for shipping companies of eastern basins are carried out by well known "Sibirskiy" type vessels (292 and 0225 prjs.) which were well proved during already 20-30 years period after their building at Finnish shipyards.
However time goes and many these series' vessels have been relocated to the RF European part and to the Far East marine regions. But remained vessels continue to provide "northern" delivery despite strong age.
OJSE Lena United River Shipping Company (LORP) was accepted as a research object because this company reflects the overall age picture of the fleet working in the Lena basin. Also it was considered that the primary present-day and perspective transportations in the territory of Yakutia are done by this shipping company; LORP is the only carrier which carries out cargo delivery in settlements of the Arctic coast.
Practically all dry cargoes in the region from Chukotka to Taimyr are delivered by river-sea "Siberian" type vessels from Tiksi Port and river ports of Lena River. The problem of renewing of such dry cargo vessel is very urgent. But the decision is not as obvious as it seems; one may decide to redesign existing vessel in accordance with today's requirements or at least to use existing vessel as prototype from the point of view of dimensions and hull shape. And then he may simply build new vessels.
But the navigation period is too small. Respectively payback period on newly constructed vessels exceeds life time of these vessels without significant growth in transportation rates; so the project becomes not commercial. Certainly, it is possible to shift this choice to shoulders of the government and to wait for the budget financing.
Within the researches executed by request of Rosmorrechflot, the Marine Engineering Bureau has offered other variant of the solution of problem of updating of fleet of the dry cargo ships of the swimming mixed the river sea intended for "northern" delivery.
As it was repeatedly described in our publications, the matter is that the bigger vessel loading in specific way conditions means the bigger efficiency of this vessel. In fact, "Max" concepts (Volgo-Don Max, Volgo-Balt Max, Dnepro Max, Lena Max) give the greatest profit to the future shipowner, and not only for cargo transportation, but also for passenger transportation. Feature of Eastern basins is that the maximum sizes of the vessel are defined by manoeuvrability conditions (radiuses of turns, fairway width) not by not by locks (there is locks in these rivers). Additionally general "trouble" of the inland waterways must be noted, i.e. insufficient depths.
Besides, for self-propelled vessels of the eastern basins the requirement which define vessel's dimensions are connected also with local ship-repair base (slipway at Zhataysk Shipyard and floating dock in Osetrovo) and with abilities of of ship-building base (most likely, it will be either the Russian shipyards on Volga or the Chinese shipyards, also modular assembly at the same Zhataysk Shipyard is available).
Payback is the main problem. It was well domestic understood, so for this reason in 1990s the considerable part of the Siberian shipping companies fleet was sent for "earning" in marine areas for international voyages; these vessels are still remained there.
The central idea of the new concept of Marine Engineering Bureau is to design multipurpose dry-cargo river-sea vessel, that will be better than "Sibirskiy" ones due to cargo capacity in t6he wide region of working draughts (2.50 - 3.50 m). She should correspond to the maximal dimensional restricts of ship-repairing base of Lena River. She should have suitable Register class (due to sailing region) for seasonal work at the Northern Marine Way (NMW) and sufficient ice properties in order to be able to return to the base in the ice-forming conditions when ice thickness is of 40 cm. From the other side, new vessels should be effective at the transport lines at the European RF part where "Volgo-Don" vessels are worked now (i.e. from river ports towards port roads transshipment complexes of Kerch and Gulf of Finland).
As a result a certain symbiosis between "Sibirskiy" and "Volgo-Don" vessel's types was defined; she has dimensions as "Volgo-Don" ones but higher class due to sailing region than RSD44 has (M-SP 3.5 versus M-PR 2.5) and due to ice class (Ice 40 versus Ice 20). It is clear that today the best hull shape for such vessels' class are the so-called "superfull" contours used for RST27, RSD54, RST12 and RST28 projects.
As a result, the new RSD62 concept has more effective technical and economic characteristics than "Sibirskiy" type (292 and 0225 prj.); the same time she is better than 507B, 1565 ("Volgo-Don") and 05074 ("Volzhskiy") vessels possessing higher strength standard than existing vessels.
The initial stage is characterized by existence of still operating "Sibirskiy" type vessels with satisfactory technical condition that can provide "northern" delivery. So during the initial stage it is possible to use new RSD62 vessels for work at RF European part on the lines usual for the "Volga-Don Max" vessels; thereby this will provide payback in significantly more attractive terms.
As far as discarding northern fleet vessels, the RSD62 ones will arrive to the northern basic shipping companies and change "Sibirskiy" type ones at "northern" delivery. Thereby safe marine sailing along Yakutsk coast between estuaries of Kolyma, Indigirka, Yana and Lena Rivers.
Mean age of "Sibirskiy" type vessels is 29 years. Therefore RSD62 vessels will manage to work about 10 years that will provide reasonable project's economics. Respectively, if it is required rates' increase for "northern" delivery, it will be not in so considerable degree as today economic calculations (done without accounting "European" operation) show.
Thus, construction of new river-sea cargo fleet is required; this fleet should completely correspond to specifics of operation in Lena Basin, but with should have more attractive economics due to partial work in the RF European part.
If there is no new fleet, in 10 years there will be no vessels provide "northern" delivery along the coast of the NMW with calling to the Arctic rivers' estuaries. That is because the age "Sibirskiy" type vessels will reach 40 years; by our estimates this is limit age for cargo vessels due to the navigation safety and profitability of escalating repairs.
3-4 such type dry cargo vessels are supposed to be constructed according to the "Transport Strategy of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) till 2025" and "Schemes of the Complex Development of Productive Forces, Transport and Energetics of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) till 2030; to our opinion such assessment underestimates the real neediness twice.
Main dry cargoes at Lana basin by the 2012 data are, as follows: building materials (1.64 million tons, or 35% of all dry cargoes); coal and coke (1.01 million tons, or 21.6%); timber (0.185 million tons, or 4.0%). Total dry cargoes transported capacity was 4.68 million tons including 0.69 million tons of containerized cargo (14.8%) and 0.46 million tons of packed cargo (9.8%).
Cargo delivery (about 200 thousand tons) to the Arctic settlements of the Yana, Indigirka, Kolyma, Anabar, Olenyok and Khatanga Rivers has its own essential differences and specifics which first of all require accumulation of goods. They also are connected with ice conditions and ice disappearing at coastal regions of Laptev and East Siberian Seas (usually in the third decade of July); and with necessary dredging and improving works at bar areas of Yana and Indigirka Rivers in order to provide river-sea vessels passing to the estuary settlements.
The operational period of work for river-sea vessels at NMW and for cargo delivery to Arctic settlements does not exceed 65 days. This period is followed with adverse weather conditions (especially in September), that requires certain navigation and hydrometeorological assistance for the vessels and NMW in whole, and also coordinated actions of all participants of the transport process.
Marine cargo transportation to the Artic settlements is carried out by LORP fleet only. Nomenclature of "north delivery" dry cargoes includes black coal, round timber, lumber, building materials, containers, machinery, equipment, pipes.
LORP transports dry loads in the Lena Basin and Lena River's tributaries such as Vitim, Olyokma, Aldan and Vilyuy. River-sea vessels work at NMW from Khatanga port to Pvek port with calling the Anabar, Olenyok, Yana, Indigirka and Kolyma Rivers.
Now "northern" delivery in Lena Basin is carried out at 8 directions. The routes making in the sum more than 5.6 thousand km of marine way run through the Arctic Ocean Seas from Khatanga to Pevek.
Due to analyze of operational and weather conditions at investigated river and river-sea sailing regions, the following RRR class notation was accepted for discussed RSD62 "northern delivery" vessel: "M-SP 3.5" ice 40 A. This class allows vessel's operation in the voyages through the Northern Marine Way from Taimyr Peninsula to Chukchi Peninsula at July-September period (class notation provides passages between estuaries). Also this class allows vessel's river operation through Lena, Indigirka, Olenyok, Anabar, Yana, Kolyma, Yenisei, Ob and Irtysh Rivers.
Autonomy parameters were accepted due to expected operation lines, features of bunkering in the Far North regions and taking into account possible vessel's stopping because of expectation of required depths or favorable weather forecast. Vessel's autonomy due to reserves of fuel oil, lub. oil, provisions and fresh water, and also due to accumulation sewage, oily waters and garbage is estimated as 20 days. Sailing distance is not less than of 4800 miles.
Due to analyze of way restrictions, the maximal length 130-141m was recommended; the lowest value provides work's ability at practically all berths in the region and passing through all "bottlenecks".
The maximal vessel's breadth may be accepted 17.2-22.8 m. Upper end usage will initiate construction problems if building at Russian shipyards.
Operational draughts range of the river and river-sea vessel for "northern" delivery is 2.50-3.56 m. Design of river-sea vessel with draughts less than 2.0-2.5 m is economically inexpedient. Besides, it is necessary to take into consideration that Lena River has long-term spring high water.
As a result, the RSD62 multi-purpose river-sea dry cargo vessel for the "northern" delivery was designed. She has 2 rudder propellers, forecastle and poop, deck-house and engine room located aft, double bottom and double sides in the cargo zone, 4 cargo holds, cylindrical fore end and transom aft end. Her main particulars are as follows:
RRR class notation is "M-SP 3.5" ice 40 A;
length overall is 141.00 m;
breadth overall is 16.98 m;
depth is 6.30 m;
draught (CWL) is 3.56 m;
draught (ballast, mean) is 3.00 m;
deadweight for CWL draught (at sea) 5640 t;
cargo holds capacity 8404 m³;
ballast tanks capacity is4706 m³;
containers capacity (TEU/FEU) is 225/105 pcs;
ME maximal capacity is 2õ1200 kW;
speed (85% of ME power) is 10.0 kn;
crew consists of 9 persons (14 places).
The new RSD62 project of the river and river-sea dry cargo vessel for the "northern" delivery was created by request of RosMorRechflot by Marine Engineering Bureau; vessel has deadweight 2992 t at draught 2.50 m, 4145 t at draught 3.00 m, 5304 t at draught 2.50 m. Pointed deadweight values considerably exceeds same values for the existing dry cargo vessels used today for the same tasks.
For example, for draft 2.50 m RSD62 vessel's deadweight is by 824 t more than for 292 vessel, by 985 t more than for 0225 vessel and by 960 t more than for 1743 vessel.
RSD62 vessel has the displacement-to-deadweight utilization coefficient better than 0225 or 292 vessels. 1743 vessel's coefficient is slight better because this project was designed in the 1970s due to "old" RRR Rules for class M (weaker than the M-SP of RSD62). 1743 vessels of "Omskiy" type have maximum draught of 3.26 m and cannot be operated with draught 3.50 m, missing significant amount of cargo at each voyage comparing with RSD62 vessel.
Comparing RSD62 vessel with vessels for the RF European part (RSD44 and 05074M prjs.), it is possible to note that deadweight of the RSD62 vessel is close to RSD44 vessel at same draughts and exceeds deadweight of "Volga" type vessels (05074M prj.). For example, deadweight of RSD62 vessel is 5304 t for river draught 3.50 m that is almost equally to corresponding parameter for RSD44 vessel and by 419 t more than for "Volga" type vessel. Thus RSD62 vessel has higher class M-SP (RSD44 vessel's class is M-PR and 05074M vessel's class is O-PR). RSD62 vessel has also Ice 40 category that will allow for the new concept to sail towards Caucasus road transshipment complexes all the year round.
The provided analysis allows drawing a conclusion about possibility of "temporary" effective usage of RSD62 vessels (until discarding of vessels 292 and 0225 prjs.) at the RF European part for ensuring payback in significantly more attractive terms.
Thus, due to request of Rosmorrechflot, the multi-purpose river-sea dry cargo vessel was designed; she is better than the "Sibirskiy" type ones due to cargo capacity within wide range of working draughts 2.50-3.50 m. This vessel meets maximal dimensional restricts of existing ship-repairing base of Lena River and has suitable Register class (due to sailing region) for seasonal work at the Northern Marine Way. She also has sufficient ice properties in order to be able to return to the base in the ice-forming conditions when ice thickness is of 40 cm. From the other side, new vessels are effective at the transport lines at the European RF part where "Volgo-Don" vessels are worked now (i.e. from river ports towards port roads transshipment complexes of Kerch and Gulf of Finland).
A certain symbiosis between "Sibirskiy" and "Volgo-Don" vessel's types was defined; she has dimensions as "Volgo-Don" ones but higher class due to sailing region than RSD44 has (M-SP 3.5 versus M-PR 2.5) and due to ice class (Ice 40 versus Ice 20).