Report at the VI International Conference "HEAVY RUSSIA 2014"
On 17-18 of November, 2014 the VI International Conference "HEAVY RUSSIA 2014" took part in Moscow; problems concerning transportation, rising and mounting of heavy-weight and oversized cargo were discussed. More than 340 delegates participated in the Conference, they were from 17 countries: Russia, Belorussia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Germany, Great Britain, USA, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Denmark, Finland, Romania, Spain, Belgium, and Holland.
The General Director of Marine Engineering Bureau, professor, doctor of technical sciences Gennadiy Egorov introduced the report "Transportation of oversized and heavy-weight cargoes by domestic water transport. River fleet conditions and new shipbuilding abilities including ones for Siberian Rivers".
In the report it was noted that significant experience of marine and river transportation of non-standard cargoes was accumulated in the Soviet period. For example, bulker "Zadonsk" (Black Sea Shipping Company" was widely used for transportation of barges and small vessel towards Far East in 1980s. Vessel's main deck was reinforced, additional "bridge" (with special "Ï"-like support) was mounted on wheelhouse's roof for providing visibility. Other bulkers were used for a lot for high diameter pipes transportation to the Gulf of Ob.
Special documents were worked out such as "Rules for marine transportation of oversized and heavy-weight cargoes", "Rules for marine transportation of super-heavy-weight and oversized cargoes by transport and crane-mounting floating units"; these documents represent accumulated experience of oversized and heavy-weight cargoes (OHWC). Mainly such transportations were fulfilled by non-specialized re-equipped vessels. The only single exception was represented by "TMI" type platform barges that were especially bought in France. These barges commenced the newest history of Russian transportation of OHWC.
This moment OHWC transportation is fulfilled by mixed river-sea vessels and non-self-propelled barges from marine ports of Europe, Turkey, Russia, and also from marine ports' roads transshipment complexes towards destinations at Russian inland waterways (or through inland waterways toward Caspian Sea). As a rule, variations depend on place of OHWC loading; that determines type of accepted river-sea vessel (barge) or at some cases pure river one.
Domestic shipowners had a small quantity of restricted navigation vessels that were fitted (to some degree) for OHWC transportation. Mainly there were used river-sea single hold "ST" type vessels (19620, 191 and R-168 projects), "Rhine" type vessels (and close projects ones) and non-self-propelled platform barges of 16800, 16801 projects and "TMI" type ones.
Taking into consideration that as a rule self-propelled vessels were designed in 70-80s of previous century it became clear why the main part of them have the following restrictions that decrease their efficiency as OHWC vessels:
• insufficient cargo hold dimensions (especially length and breadth);
• corrugation of cargo hold hatches (trapezoid transvers section); this demands placing of special foundation onto hatches for OHWC transportation;
• small power of main engines and their worn-out state. This leads to insufficient operational speed ant its significant lowering during storm. So at stormy weather when transporting OHWC on hatch covers vessel may reach into over-project regime of actual loadings;
• insufficient local strength of tank top and hatch covers especially;
• insufficient visibility from wheel house while OHWC is placed on hatch covers.
During 14 new century years 127 river-sea dry cargo vessels were built (till 10.11.2014 ). Biggest part of them are new generation vessel, because their projects were worked out by Marine Engineering Bureau past 2000 (99 vessels or 78% of the total vessels' number).
Nevertheless practically all these vessels are multipurpose dry cargo vessels oriented firstly to mass cargo not OHWC. That is why they have got as a rule 3-4 cargo holds.
But the new generation of coasters and river-sea vessels includes projects worked out especially for OHWC transportation; these projects have got no limitations listed above. 39 vessels totally were built with "from birth" ability of OHWC transportation.
Vessels of 3 projects have got a very long single cargo hold that provides ability of voyages with equipment and other oversized cargoes. RSD49 and RSD20 three-hold concepts have got one of the cargo holds of long type.
Among these "OHWC provided" vessels 22 ones are of the river-sea type (RSD49, RSD20, 003RSD04 projects). 16 vessels (DCV33 and DCV36 projects) are of classical coaster type. One project (RST54) is intended for OHWC and dry cargoes transportation on the upper cargo deck, so she is platform-vessel.
Special position is occupied by 12 single-hold 003RSD04 vessel of "Caspian Express" type; they were optimized for work with draughts 4.1-4.5 m at Russian ports of Azov and Caspian Seas while keeping ability of running through Volgo-Don Shipping Canal. These vessels represent symbiosis of European coasters and domestic conditions. Vessels transport OHWC from European ports towards Caspian ones. Character feature of this project is single box-shaped cargo hold with dimensions 59 õ 13.2 õ 6.4 m while vessel's scantling length is 85 m. Hatch covers are of multifolding type.
Same interesting is RSD49 vessels with long second hold. According to the statement of press-service of OJSE "North-Western Shipping Company" (NWSC), since end of 2012 seven RSD49 dry cargo vessels of "Neva-Leader" type have effected 14 voyages with oversized equipment, and from January till September 2014 they fulfilled 7 equipment transportations from Southern and Northern Europe to Caspian Sea, Volga River Region and St.-Petersburg. All three holds are box-shaped, smooth-wall, convenient for carrying out the freight works and placing a cargo without shifting. The cargo holds' sizes are 26.0x12.7 m (hold No. 1), 52.00x12.7 m (hold No. 2), 27.3x12.7 m (hold No. 3) while holds' height is 8.4 m. Cargo holds are equipped with sectional hatch covers of Folding type of Cargotech type with possibility of 100% opening.
Double bottom is designed for distributed load intensity of 12.0 t per sq.m.
New DCV36 coaters are assigned for transportation of general, solid bulk, scrap, grain, coal, timber, heavy and large-sized cargoes, TEU and FEU of height up to 9.5' (including refrigerating ones), dangerous goods of 1.4S, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.1, 8 and 9 classes and category B of BC Code. Vessel's overall length is 89.96 m, scantling length is 84.89 m, breadth is 14.5 m, depth is 7.5 m, summer freeboard draught is 6.40 m and corresponding deadweight is 5039 t.
DCV36 Cargo hold is designed of the box-shaped smooth-wall type, convenient for carrying out the freight works and placing a cargo without stowing. The cargo hold sizes are 60.0x11.50x9.20 m; that ensures placing 3 tiers of 9.5' containers or large-sized cargoes. Cargo holds capacity is of 6230 cub.m. Double bottom is designed for distributed load intensity of 14.0 t per sq.m.
This moment process of building new cargo vessels for European part of Russian inland waterways commences; these vessels have enhanced river function:
• RSD44 "estuary" river dry cargo vessels of "Volga-Don Max" type with lowered air draught, allowing to pass under the bridges of the Neva River and the Rostov-on-Don railway bridge without drawing and also through Moscow River (10 vessels are under operation yet);
• RST54 river combined platform tankers based on "super fat" contours of RST27 project; these vessel are intended for open deck transportation of cargo that doesn't suffer from wetting (e.g. gravel, rolled metal, "heavy" containers, cars, etc.) towards one direction and oil products towards back direction (head vessel is accepted into operation, 10 ones are under construction now, total 20-vessels order is awaiting).
The character feature of all new concepts is "expanding" narrow places of inland water transport by using new technical decisions. Other words, transportation ability is increased by maximal usage of actual way characteristics (maximal available vessel's length and breadth), and mainly by usage extremely fat hull contours, that have never used before in world's practice. And at least, decreasing of air draught allows to avoid running time loss for waiting of bridges drawing in St.-Petersburg and Rostov-on-Don and allows to work through Moscow River till the Yuzhniy port.
Usage of RST54 combined vessels:
• provides both directions cargo transportation (oil cargoes towards one direction and OHWC towards back direction);
• allows to decrease highways rate due to passenger cars transportation (200-280 ones in single party), that usually are brought from St.-Petersburg to central Russia by car transportation trucks;
• provides transportation of 120 containers with weight up to 36 t each (including 45 refrigerating ones); such transportation is prohibited for car train due to maximal load restriction.
Cargo area on the main deck with 2 m barrier is intended for transportation of dry cargoes onboard RST54 vessels. Main deck shell within cargo area is designed for loading 5.5 t per sq.m. Maximal loading condition foresees 4700 t of dry cargo on the open deck due to stability limitations.
Quite different situation was formed in the Siberian and at the North of the European part of Russia. Problem concerning replenishment of northern rivers fleet has to be solved taking into consideration existing and perspective cargo flows of the specific region and region's needs. Accordingly projects of new generation vessels for Far East and Siberia should differ from concepts for Europe.
For example, on 23.07.14 A-Service Company completed interesting and complex project concerning delivery oa metal constructions to the Manily Village for Kamchatka airports modernization.
Manily Village is placed at the north part of Kamchatka, 1350 km to the NNE from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky; this territory belongs to the Far North. The village lays on the slightly sloping right coast of the estuary part of the Pengina River, at the distance of 10 km from Pengina Bay (Okhotsk Sea) near place of The Manilka River inflows into Pengina River.
The village has no land connection with surrounding world. Only port station provides cargo-transport contacts with territory's center and all other villages. This makes Manily Village a significant transport-energy knot and an important settlement of Pengina District.
Regional Purpose Program "Development of Domestic Air Lines of Kamchatka" foresees modernization of Manily airport terminal for the sum of 157.8 million rubles. This airport will become the main one in the system of traffic mobility providing for Pengina District people.
DCV47 supply vessels of "Sosnovka" type were used for OHWC delivery.
Loading/unloading works were complicated by that fact that platform vessels had to wait for ebb tide in order to unload them on dry land. Ebb tide takes place twice a day, vessel's unloading may be completed during it, because at high tide barge has to proceed to the bay and load another part of cargo from the big marine vessel. Absence of the berths significantly slows down vessels' handling; that increases demurrage and cargo unloading cost.
DCV47 concept includes more wide abilities that are necessary for supplying of distant population places, except typical for such vessels general cargoes and vehicles, as follows:
• cargo loading/unloading on the roads, entering into shallow river mouth during high tide with drainage ability on sand-gravel soil during ebb tide. For providing such features vessel has strong construction for safe cargo operation during drainage in accordance with RS requirements. Reinforced double bottom (0.8 m height), double sides of 1.725 m width (B/5) and sufficient number of longitudinal and transverse bulkheads provide single-compartment unsinkability. Onboard electric station includes diesel-generators cooled by special outer water system (transient regime) and emergency stay diesel-generator with air cooling;
• cargo delivery to unequipped shore and providing horizontal unloading of delivered cargo through the bow ramp or with help of vessel's crane or by the coast means that (incl. car cranes) that are able come to the vessel's side during ebb tide (railing guard is made of hinged type at the cargo zone in order to provide work of car crane's boom at the maximal outreach);
• heavy wheel (of 15 t per axel) or truck vehicles of 60 t transportation with ability of vehicles roll-on / roll-off through bow ramp when coast support is prepared; heavy wheel of 10 t per wheel or truck vehicles of 30 t when there is no coast support.