Discussion of the automobile-train-passenger ferryboat concept for voyages from port of Caucasus
On 16.12.2013 a meeting of the working group on coordination, scientific, technical and organizational support of work on the implementation of the federal target program "Development of civil marine engineering for 2009-2016" took place in the Federal Agency of Maritime and River Transport. The meeting was held under the supervision of the Deputy Head of Rosmorrechflot Yuriy Kostin.
The general director of Marine Engineering Bureau, professor, doctor of technical sciences Gennadiy Egorov reported during the meeting about results of technical projects designing for marine ferryboats for Black Sea, as follows:
• automobile-train-passenger ferryboat (CNF08P prj.) for working from train terminals of the Caucasus port (existing part of the port) into directions towards Turkey and Bulgaria. This will provide to "circle" all ferry crossings in Russia, Ukraine, Turkey and Bulgaria. This crossing lines maybe may become an alternative for overloaded automobile near-coast roads;
• automobile-passenger ferryboat (CNF16B prj.) with dimensions that correspond to the perspective regions of the Caucasus port. This ferryboat is intended for lines port of Caucasus - Turkish ports - Bulgarian ports. All this allow to increase ferryboat's capacity due to trucks;
• automobile-passenger ferryboat (CNF16A prj.) for line port of Sochi - Turkish ports;
• automobile-passenger ferryboat (CNF12M prj.) for "classical" line port of Caucasus - port of Crimea.
There are several types of ferry transportation at Black Sea now. Maximal specific weight has cargo transportation of automobiles, railway wagons and containers by train ferryboats or Ro-Ro ferryboats.
The next transportation type due to its capacity is transportation of heavy-load trucks (TIR), passenger cars and a small amount of passengers (100-200 persons). As a rule passengers at such lines are drivers of automobiles and cargo attendants. Thus, these ferryboats have passenger class but have no expand passenger complex but only minimal passenger service. As usually there are 40 - 100 standard 2/4-persons cabins, bar, buffet restaurant, duty-free shop and game-playing machines saloon.
The following lines can be marked from the list of international Black Sea ferry lines oriented towards Russian ports:
1. Lines of AnRussTrans (Russia) group of companies:
• the port of Caucasus - the port of Crimea (train and automobile-passenger lines);
• the port of Caucasus - the port of Varna (train line);
• the port of Caucasus - the port of Zandulak (automobile-passenger line).
2. Lines of BFI Company (Russia, OJSE "RZhD" subsidiary company):
• the port of Caucasus - the port of Poti (train line);
• the port of Caucasus - the port of Samsun (train line).
3. Line of FSUC "ROSMORPORT" (Russian manager and Turkish owner):
the port of Novorossiysk - the port of Sochi (automobile-passenger line).
4. Line of "Stakonta Enterprises Ltd." (Russian manager):
the port of Gelendgik - the port of Samsun (automobile-passenger line).
5. Line of "UkrFerry" company:
the port of Derindge - the port of Novorossiysk (automobile-passenger line).
6. Line of "Kerch ferry crossing" (Ukraine):
the port of Caucasus - the port of Crimea (automobile-passenger line).
7. Line of "Navibulgar" (Bulgaria):
the port of Varna - the port of Caucasus (train line soon).
8. Line of "Cenk Lines" (Turkey):
the port of Samsun - the port of Novorossiysk (automobile-passenger line).
9. Line "Ulusoy SeaLines" / "Karadeniz Ro-Ro" (Turkey):
the port of Samsun - the port of Novorossiysk (automobile-passenger line).
10. Lines of "Paradise Cruise & Ferry" (Russian manager and German owner):
• the port of Batumi - the port of Sochi - the port of Yalta - the port of Odessa (from 2014);
• the port of Novorossiysk - the port of Trabzon - the port of Poti (soon).
11. Lines of "Sari Denizcilik" (Turkey):
the port of Sochi - the port of Trabzon (automobile-passenger line).
As for 01.12.2013 data, the mean age of the marine ferryboats operated on Black Sea lines is of 28 years. Standard operating term of these vessels is of 25-35 years while the maximal operational term is of 40 years. Thus, practically all marine ferryboats (35 ones) should be decommissioned during nearest 5-10 years.
Russian companies have got new Black sea ferryboats yet. All these ferryboats were designed by Marine Engineering Bureau.
For example, AnRussTrans group of companies has built a set of ferryboats, as follows: ferryboat "Avangard" (CNF06 prj.) for 45 wagons in 2009, ferryboat "Slavyanin" (CNF09 prj.) for 50 wagons in 2009, automobile-passenger ferryboat "Nikolay Aksenenko" (CNF12 prj.) for 261passengers and 43 passenger cars in 2013. Before ferryboats "Petrovsk" and "Annenov" (for 25 wagons each) were modernized in 2002 and 2003 respectively.
BFI Company has built several ferryboats, as follows: ferryboats "Smat" and "Feruz" (CNF03 prj.) for 50 wagons each in 2007 and 2008 respectively, ferryboat "Ulfat" (CNF10 prj.) for 45 wagons in 2010.
But all these ferryboats are pure cargo vessels, except "Nikolay Aksenenko" built for short passenger crossing Caucasus - Crimea.
Now such decision is not enough for the further development of the international transport corridors. The alternative to the overloaded highways along coast of Black Sea is necessary. Accordingly, it is necessary to exchange pure train ferryboats for combined automobile-train-passenger to vessels, which will allow to "circle" all ferry terminals of Russia, Turkey, Bulgaria and Ukraine.
Therefore during working group meeting the concept of the CNF08P prj. ferryboat was presented first. This concept foresees work from train terminals of the port of Caucasus (existing part of the port of Caucasus) towards Russian ports of Black Sea, Turkish ports, Bulgarian ports.
Design requirements to the ferryboat which base port is the port Caucasus are, as follows:
1) Main dimensions of the ferryboat are restricted by the depth and breadth of the navigable pass and permissible turn radius. For the Port of Caucasus these dimensional restrictions look like this: breadth not more than 22 m, length not more than 151 m, draught (at the turning circle) not more than 4.9 m, draught during cargo operations (near berth) not more than 6.0 m, height of rail's head above water level not more than 5.1 m.
2) Features of ramps with which the vessel will work should be taken into account when designing the train ferryboat. AK01 ramp at the port of Caucasus represents a trapezoid construction with length of 40 m, width of a narrow berth side of about 12 m, width of a wide part of about 18 m.
Extremes of alternations of ramp's position are, as follows: 1.6 m for rising and 1.69 m for lowering.
Beginnings of 5 railway lines are placed on the cargo deck of the ramp at the berth joint of the narrow ramp's part. The railway lines are laid till the end of the ramp's wide (marine) part and are prolonged further it for 100 mm. The rails are of R-50 type; track breadth is of 1520 mm.
Wagon trains are rolled through the central line or through two symmetrical lines simultaneously.
3) Required vessel capacity is not less than one train consisted of 50 railway tank wagons of 1-T dimensions with length between coupling gauges of 12020 mm. Besides, the vessel should be adapted for transportation of other vehicles including trailers, long-length large-sized cargoes and ISO type containers (TEU and FEU).
4) The vessel's class should ensured safe and efficient operation at conditions of the Black Sea along set lines Caucasus - Varna, Caucasus - Poti, Caucasus - Samsun and Caucasus - Crimea.
5) Wagons' transportation on the open upper deck is foreseen. The cargo should be safely secured for any possible voyage conditions, including case of the forecast mistake. Installation "enhanced" bulwark is recommended.
Loading/unloading of wagons should be carried out in single plane. as at all Black Sea ferryboats designed by Marine Engineering Bureau. This feature reduces the building cost of the vessel and of the shore terminal.
6) General longitudinal strength of the hull should allow to carry out cargo operations with wagons by two trains in single pass with the minimal stay time and with performance of all conditions for safe connection with berth ramp at the port of Caucasus due to angle of rails' connection, vessel's list and maximal/minimal values of ferryboat's stern lowering.
7) Local strength should be ensured by hull members (web beams, bulkheads, pillars, girders) at rational distribution and the wagons' loading transfer scheme with minimization of plates' thickness, and also in view of contact of aft end constructions berth ramp. Pillars in the cargo compartments should be excluded.
8) Transportation of automobile trains is foreseen both on a main deck and on the tank top. With the purpose of reduction of loss of the useful area, it is recommended to carry out automobiles' movement to the hold with the help of the cargo elevator.
9) Number of the passengers should be about twice bigger than number of truck that can be arranged onboard.
The new concept is marine automobile-train-passenger double-screw ferryboat without deck sheer, with forecastle, with ER located aft and wheel house located fore, with double bottom of 1400 mm height, with double sides of 3295 mm width, with bow and stern thrusters, with cylindrical fore end and transom aft end.
Vessel is assigned for transportation of railway trains of Russian standard with 1520 mm track breadth and of European standard with 1435 mm track breadth, all kinds of automobiles, including road trains, various vehicles and containers on roll trailers and passengers using the aft cargo handling schemes.
Vessel is able to transport not less than 55 railway wagons of 81 t or 50 railway wagons of 88 t on the upper deck; also she is able to transport not less than 52 road trains of 55 t or 312 passenger cars of 1.5 t on the upper deck and tank top. Vessel is assigned for dangerous goods transportation on the open part of the upper deck also.
There are cabins with toilet and shower foe arrangement and transportation up to 100 passengers (truck drivers), as follows: 20 2/4-persons cabins and 10 2-persons cabins. A number of compartments are foreseen for passengers, as follows: separate galley with buffet, 50-places restaurant (2 changes meal period for passengers); rest saloon with bar; interne coffee with game-playing machines; duty-free shop.
The upper deck strength provides transportation of railway trains; all kinds of automobiles, including cargo car trains that include 12.0/13.5 m semitrailer wagons and container platforms. Upper deck is designed for transportation of wagons or tank wagons of 98 t on any railway lines.
Transportation of all kinds of automobilesá including road trains that include 12.0/13.5 m semitrailer wagons and container platforms.
Allowable load of wheeled vehicles on the axle is as follows: 12 t for 4 wheels on the axle; 10 t for 2 wheels on the axle.
Navigable region includes marine areas conformed to R1 region (3%- probability vawe heihght of 8.5 m, distance from shelter place not more than 200 miles, allowable distance between shelter places not more 400 miles).
CNF08P ferry boat main characteristics are, as follows:
RS class notation is of: KM Ice1 R1 AUT1-C HELIDECK Ro-ro passenger ship.
Length overall is of 149.99 m.
Length between perpendiculars is of 142.00 m.
Breadth overall is of 22,20 m.
Breadth 21.00 m.
Depth 7.15 m.
Draught (due to Summer Free Board) is of 4.00 m.
ME maximal capacity is of 2 ơ 2040 kWt.
Speed is of 12.6 kn.
Crew and service staff is of 28 persons.
Fuel and lub. oil autonomy is of 15 days, food autonomy is of 10 days.
8 main water-tight transverse bulkheads are to be mounted onboard the vessel, dividing the hull into 9 water-tight compartments.
There are two 65-persons lifeboats arranged by sides and one high speed 15-person duty boat. Also two up-to-date marine evacuation systems with closed inflatable living raft and evacuation pipe for ensuring access to the raft are arranged by sides. Theoretical acceptance rate of the evacuation system is 582 person per 30 minutes. Each evacuation system includes one living raft for 101 persons).
Two inflatable 51-persons self-righting living rafts are foreseen onboard also; they are arranged by sides. One 6-person dropped living raft is installed on the upper deck aft.
Vessel's transom has a recess near upper deck to ensure jointing to the berth ramp of the ferry complexes. Cargo elevator with capacity of of 55 t (17.4 m length) is foreseen for loading/unloading vehicles from upper deck to tank top and vice versa.
Runaway platform for helicopter reception (without permanent basing) is foreseen in the middle part of the vessel at the bridge level. Runaway platform is equipped according to ICAO requirements.
Power plant includes, as follows:
• main unit consisting of two diesel engines with maximal continuous capacity about of 2040 kW with 1000 rpm, working through reduction gears towards 2 fixed-pitch propellers;
• auxiliary unit consisting of four diesel-generators (electrical capacity of 300 kW each) and emergency diesel-generator (electrical capacity of about 168 kW);
• auxiliary boiler plant consisting of single oil fired heater with heat power of 1000 kW and single incinerator.
Heavy fuel oil IFO380 with viscosity 380 cSt at 50°C with flash point > 60°C is used.
Central Research Maritime Fleet Institute carried out analyze of economic efficiency of CNF08P passenger-train-automobile ferryboat at the set of lines, as follows: the port of Caucasus (Russia) - the port of Varna (Bulgaria) - the port of Caucasus (Russia), the port of Caucasus (Russia) - the port of Samsun (Turkey) - the port of Caucasus (Russia).
As a result of carried out modeling of marine ferryboats work from Black Sea ports at the set lines it is followed that during operational period CNF08P ferryboat should effect 2 circle voyages per week, interchanging directions Caucasus - Varna and Caucasus - Samsun.
Work at lines Caucasus - Varna and Caucasus - Samsun should be characterized by undiscounted payback period of 4.8; 6.8; 8.6 years correspondingly to variants of business loading (loading coefficients 0.9; 0.8; 0.7). So, conclusion may be worked about economical reasonability of such project.