The Expert Council of Maritime and River Fleet Federal Agency accepted the new generation of train-car-passenger ferry for the line Vanino-Kholmsk
Meeting of Expert Council of Maritime and River Fleet Federal Agency of Russian Federation Ministry of Transport took place on the 31d of October, 2013. Head of this Agency Mr. Alexander Davydenko was a chairman of the meeting; Head of State Politics Department at the Maritime and River Transport Sphere of RF Ministry of Transport Mr. Konstanin Palnikov took part in the meeting.
Defense of a new concept of CNF11CPD train-car-passenger ice-breaking ferry with unrestricted navigation area for the line Vanino-Kholmsn took place during the meeting. Mr. Gennadiy Egorov (the Marine Engineering Bureau general director, prof., Dr. Sc.) presented the concept. Expert Council accepted the technical project of new generation ferry.
Vessel is assigned for transportation of rail way wagons (30 pcs., Russian standard with 1520 mm track breadth), all kinds of automobiles, including road trains (48 pcs.), passenger cars (additionally 28 pcs.) various wheel techniques and containers on roll trailers, ref-containers and also dangerous cargoes of classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.1, 6.1, 8, 9 and passengers (150 persons), using the aft and side cargo handling schemes.
Completed design is a result of complex investigations carried out in 2012-2013 by Marine Engineering Bureau in interaction with lead native and foreign scientific institutes including Aker Arctic Technology (vessel's contours recommendations, ice model tests), CSRI of Marine Fleet (technical decisions examination at all design stages, vessel's contours forming, economical calculations and situation modeling), State scientific Center named for academic A.N. Krylov (model towage tests, self running tests, sea keeping tests, checking tests in the ice tank), design bureau of wagon department of OJSC "Russian Rail Ways" (check up of an opportunity of trains transportation onboard the ferry).
Ferry line Vanino-Kholmsk ensures more than 3/4 of all cargo transportation between the island and continent and about 1/4 of passenger transportation.
Existing train ferries for ferry line Vanino-Kholmsk of "Sakhalin" type with R1 restricted navigation area were built at Yantar Shipyard in Kaliningrad from 1972 till 1992.
Nowadays only 4 vessels of "Sakhalin" type are left, and 3 of them are effected transport operations at the ferry line. They provide 2 voyages a day (in average). For comparing, more than 6 voyages a day were provided in 1990.
Passenger capacity of trains ferry is fully needed because ferries became single available passenger transport mean for the biggest part of Sakhalin people due to high cost of air tickets.
There is traced the tendency of cargo transportation by autotrailers increase (by 23%) and railway wagons decrease (by 16.5%). The part of automobile transport in cargo transportation has reached 26%. The dangerous cargoes part reaches 12-15%; dangerous cargoes includes fuel oil, methanol, chemical materials.
Due to hydrometeorological point of view the negative features of the sea port of Kholmsk are rip current and standing waves at the internal water area that complicates entering the port. Currents along coast should be pointed also; they quickly turn slow vessels at the port entrance. Thereof recently usual practice became to enter the port at high speed that increases probability of collisions, creates additional waves at port water area and contradicts the common ideas concerning navigation safety in ports waters. Therefore new ferry boats have improved steerability that provide safe entering into the port of Kholmsk.
A feature of the sea port of Vanino is ice navigation from 1st of January till 31st of March; accordingly technical order required for the new vessel's concept not only high ice category Arc5, but also providing speed of 6-8 kn in the 80 cm ice and about 3 kn in the 1.0 m ice.
New ferry boats have unrestricted navigation area and have no weather restrictions accordingly.
"Sakhalin" type ferry boats have SINGLE fixed pitch PROPELLER fore and single one aft. Such design was normal for the end of 60-s of previous century, when the ferry boats were under design. There were big problems with producing high power reliable thrusters in the USSR; this moment fore/aft propeller scheme is an archaic one.
Fore/aft propeller scheme set tactics for entering into the port, namely to cross the port of Kholmsk entry at quick full astern moving; vessel has no chance to reflect side forces from wind, waves or current. Vessel's propellers are located in CL and correspondingly are useless at low speeds. vessel may be shifted sideways.
Also it may be marked that the most part of equipment onboard train ferry of the "Sakhalin" type are taken out of production now.
New train ferry tactics for entering to the port of Kholmsk is very different in accordance with her abilities.
The new ferry doesn't demand risky entering into the port at high speed for providing her steerability. The ferry goes within port stern forward at speed less than 3 kn; in such case there is no reduction of thrusters' efficiency.
The new ferry wind area (side profile) is of 2250 sq.m. for the worst case at not full draught (6.5 m) with car trains on upper deck. At the worst wind direction (perpendicularly to CL) the ferry can withstand 18 kn wind with zero (!!!) shifting by work of thrusters only; thrusters' capacity is of 3x76 kN. Allowable wind speed increases significantly if one take into consideration drift resistance and work rudder-propeller unit (double shaft type).
Accepted decisions provide independent mooring and long-run astern movement through constrained port basin of the ports of Vanino and Kholmsk, crossing the port of Kholmsk entry at astern moving with the speed that ensures stable vessel's steering.
A feature of the voyage line is significant duration of the sailing time (about 20 hours per day). Therefore considerable influence upon vessel's work in whole show speed characteristics of vessel's contours and propulsion unit efficiency. The new CNF11 ferry speed is of 18 kn at 85% usage of engines' power (existing ferries have speed about of 16 kn). Onboard the CNF11 ferry two main engines serve every propeller; this is well known decision from European ferries. Such engine-propeller scheme allows to keep 12 kn speed at economic regime and 18 kn speed at full speed regime. Hull contours were developed with help computer modeling and validated at towin tanks of State scientific Center named for academic A.N. Krylov and Aker Arctic Technology.
Ice running characteristics of CNF11CPD train-car ferry were obtained as a result of carried out investigations at towing tanks, as follows: limit ice passing ability is of 1.48 m at forward speed of 3 kn, of 1.04 m at forward speed of 6 kn, of 0.85 m at astern speed of 1.5 kn. More over both vessel's end were constructively designed for higher Arc 7 ice category; in aggregate with icebreaker lever ice passing ability Icebreaker6 this permits to the new ferry (unlike the existing ferries) to work independently at the hard ice conditions on the 30 miles voyage route near the port of Vanino. Independent sailing allows avoiding big time-outs of the vessel waiting general ice conveyance or excess expenses for individual ice conveyance.
In due time ferry line was created for servicing of rail way transportation; last time automobile transportation occupies bigger part of ferry lines. New kind of cargo, namely hard trailers and passenger cars. Transportation of the cargo of passenger cars will be increased due to Lidoga-Vanino highway building. Shippers have got one more potential new cargo for ferry line, namely containers and roll-trailers with heavy mechanisms. Therefore while keeping ability of rail way wagons carriage (total tracking length is of 440 m for the new ferry and of 420 m onboard existing one) the automobiles capacity increased by 2.6 times (cargo compartments total length is of 1036 m for the new ferry and of 394 m onboard existing one). As a result the following amount of automobiles can be placed onboard the new ferry: 48 trucks with semitrailers (total length 12.0-13.5 m) and additionally 28 passenger cars.
Restricted stay in the port is required in order to provide single-day voyage and stable timetable, so complete cargo and passenger operations should take 2 hours. Correspondingly aft ro-ro cargo handling scheme is used (with berth rail way bridge usage). Also there is possibility to load upper deck with car trains via berth stationary trestle bridge. For unusual voyages there is side ramp for loading/unloading any vehicles.
Time has shown that operational rates reduction of existing train ferries of "Sakhalin" type leaded duration of single voyage from 8 till 14-18 hours; reduction source was physical wear of vessel's hull and equipment. Such duration increase call for dismounting of passenger air chairs (due to Sanitary Rules) and self-made construction of sleeping accommodation cabin. Earlier it was said that passenger capacity of existing train ferries is fully needed because ferries became single available passenger transport mean for the biggest part of Sakhalin people due to high cost of air tickets. Passenger transportation has season fluctuation of passengers' quantity. Additionally it may be needed to transport season workers, military contingent, passengers with private cars. 150 passengers should be accommodated onboard the new train ferry's concept (cargo-passenger variant), as follows: 5 persons at enhanced single cabins, 42 ones at double cabins with water closets, 9 ones at three-berth cabins, 44 ones at four-berth cabins and 50 ones at saloon chairs.
It is supposed that the new train ferries will work using existing old ferry moorings and simultaneously with the existing "Sakhalin" type ferries for some time; the new vessels should replace the old ones step-by step.
Significant part of dangerous cargoes (e.g. diesel oil, stove oil etc.) should be transported together with passengers. Cargoes of a class 1 should be transported without passengers; the liquefied gas should be transported together with restricted passengers' number (43 persons).
Thus Marine Engineering Bureau create CNF11CPD project of new generation of train-car-passenger ferry for the line Vanino-Kholmsk in accordance with technical specification of Maritime and River Fleet Federal Agency, this project provides improve cargo capacity comparing with existing ferries (automobile capacity is bigger by 2.6 times). The new ferry has no weather restrictions, can operate at hard ice conditions (speed is of 6-8 kn in the 80 cm ice and about 3 kn in the 1.0 m ice), can effect independent mooring operations (several times a day) without auxiliary boats assistance, can effect long-run astern movement through constrained port of Kholmsk basin. The new ferry should have day cycle of the round voyage (operational speed is of 18 kn), and 2 hours stay for loading-unloading works. The new concept (CNF11CPD variant) should carry up to 150 passengers; she can carry dangerous cargoes. Vessel's equipment should provide ability to sail at full or partial power plant capacity, to effect main engines maintenance without withdrawal ferry from operation.