Three reports of Marine Engineering Bureau are at Neva 2013 conference
On 25th - 26th of September, 2013 the 12th International Conference of Civil Shipbuilding, Marine Engineering and Offshore Development, Ship Repair and Marine Equipment "NEVA-2013" was carried out in St.-Petersburg.
Marine Engineering Bureau presented three reports due to principle important directions of Russian shipping and shipbuilding, as follows:
I. Justification of concept of new generation of dry-cargo vessels. G.V. Egorov, N.V. Avtutov and A.G. Egorov are the authors.
Russian river-sea and river-going cargo vessels transport about 113 million tons of dry cargoes per year (about 102 million tons by internal transportation, 11 million tons by external one) according to 2011 year data.
It is expected that the transportation capacity of dry cargo vessels in the north-west direction will increase:
up to 28.7 million tons by 2015;
up to 32,1-36,3 million tons by 2020;
up to 36,3-42,9 million tons by 2025.
Transportation capacity of dry cargo vessels in the central direction will increase:
Central Federal District
up to 28.2 million tons till 2015 year;
up to 31,6-35,7 million tons till 2020 year;
up to 35,7-42,2 million tons till 2025 year.
Volga Federal District
up to 54.7 million tons till 2015 year;
up to 61,3-69,4 million tons till 2020 year;
up to 69,4-82,1 million tons till 2025 year.
Transportation capacity by dry cargo vessels in the south direction will increase:
up to 6,9 million tons till 2015 year;
up to 7,7-8,8 million tons till 2020 year;
up to 8,8-10,4 million tons till 2025 year.
The stable growth of freight flows, which was observed before the crisis at the European part of Russian inland waterways and which is expected in the future at the European part of Russia is essentially slower than the speed of new vessels building.
82 new mixed river-sea going dry cargo vessels, built from 2004 till September 2013, by the Marine Engineering Bureau projects are already in operation. However, researches due to improvement of decisions are in progress.
The variants of perspective types of dry cargo mixed river-sea going vessels for further construction are given in the report, as follows:
Variant 1 is a barge-tug train of R2 navigation area of mixed river-sea going type of "Volga-Don Max" class with a marine tractive connection. Pusher is of a new generation type.
Variant 2 is a dry cargo vessel of R2-RSN navigation area of mixed river-sea going type of "Volga-Don max" class of 007RSD07 project of "Tanais" type with "normal" forms. This concept was developed in 2007 by the order of "Azov-Don Shipping Company". It is a development of 006RSD02 project "Nadezhda" (2004).
Variant 3 is a dry cargo vessel of R2 navigation area of mixed river-sea navigation of "Volga-Don Max" class of RSD49 project with "normal" contours. The concept was developed in 2010 by the order of "North-Western Shipping Company"; it is a development of 006RSD05 project "Heydar Aliyev" (2004, the group of companies "Palmali" was the Customer) and the RSD19 project "Khazar" (2008). The main RSD49 difference from RSD19 is the presence of the middle hold (52 m long) which allows to carry an oversized "project" cargoes from European and Persian Gulf ports to the Caspian Sea, etc.
Variant 4 is an estuary cargo vessel of "M-PR" navigation area of mixed river-sea going type of "Volga-Don Max" class of RSD44 project with low air draught (2010, concept was developed due to Federal purpose plan "Development of civil marine engineering"; "Volga Shipping Company" is a customer).
Variant 5 is a dry cargo vessel of R2 of navigation area of mixed river-sea going type of "Volga-Don Max" class with "fat" forms (2010, concept was developed due to Federal purpose plan "Development of civil marine engineering". She is a dry cargo analog of famous RST27 project tanker).
The total requirements for new dry cargo vessels of "Volga Don Max" class are of 130-140 units up to 2020 year.
It is recommended to build dry cargo vessels with low air draught according to Variant 4 (RSD44 project with river deadweight of about 5500 tons) for internal and "river-sea" transportation (to replace the "Volga-Don" and "Volga" vessels). RSD44 project has significantly better technical and economical river rates, and has the ability to pass under the bridges of the Neva River and Rostov railway bridge without drawing, as well as to the Southern port of Moscow. It is also recommended to build similar dry cargo vessels with "full" forms by concept of the tanker of RST27 project according to Variant 5, which have enhanced river function and increased river deadweight (about 5100 tons at the draught of 3.6 m).
Mixed sea-river going dry cargo vessels according to Variant 3 (RSD49 project) and barge-tug train according to Variant 1 are recommended to be build for coastal, marine and "sea-river" transportation as well as for transit transportation of large-sized cargoes.
II. The concept of perspective river-sea going tanker. G.V. Egorov and V.I. Tonyuk are the authors.
It is shown that the mixed river-sea going tankers and barge-tug trains are (or can be) used for the following river-sea transportation in the European part of Russia:
• in the Southern direction (from Tatyanka, Samara, Saratov, Kashpir, Oktjabrsk and other river ports to the roads transshipment complex of Caucasus port);
• in the North-Western direction (from Yaroslavl, Kstovo, Nizhnie Mully, Ufa, Nizhnekamsk and other river ports to the roads transshipment complex and the Russian ports of the Gulf of Finland);
• in the Northern direction (from river ports to the ports of White Sea).
Mixed river-sea going tankers transport of about 8.5 million tons of oil and oil products per year.
The capacity of oil products transportation in the North-Western direction (from Yaroslavl, Kstovo, Nizhnie Mully, Ufa, Nizhnekamsk and other river ports to the Russian ports of the Gulf of Finland) is estimated in the amount of 4.0 million tons for 2015-2025 years (5.3 million tons are for 2015-2017 years due to other estimates and actually 5.02 million tons are in 2010 year, 5.27 million tons are in 2011 year, about 5 million tons are in 2012 year).
The capacity of oil products transportation in the Southern direction (from Tatyanka, Samara, Saratov, Kashpir, Oktjabrsk and other river ports to the roads transshipment complex of Caucasus port and the Caspian transit) accepted for 2015-2025 years in the amount of 6,75-10,0 million tons. Actually 6.9 million tons have been already reached in 2012.
Oil terminals in the area of Baku (Dubendy, Sangachal) refined of about 6.7 million tons of oil in 2009, in Aktau was refined of about 10.1 million tons, in Turkmenbashy and Okarem was refined of about 3.3 million tons, in Makhachkala was refined of 3.9 million tons.
The capacity of transshipment of oil products in the Azov-Black Sea basin in 2011 remained at the level of 2010 year. It is the indicator of a stable work of mixed river-sea going tankers, which, in general, carry products of oil refining, not crude oil.
It is interesting to note that transshipment of oil cargo in Makhachkala increased by 17.2%. In this figure the main part is owned by crude oil; its transshipment has increased by 12.4% for 7 months of 2011 due to the cargo delivery from the U. Korchagin oilfield (industrial production at it has begun in the last year spring).
Mixed river-sea going tanker fleet built in Soviet times is now out of date physically and morally. For example, at January 2013 condition mean age of main for European part "Volgoneft" type tankers (131 units) is of 45.2 years for 558/550 prj. and 38.5 years for 1577/550A prj. From this amount 23 vessels has mark "non-suitable" (17.5%). The main problem of these projects is non-fulfillment of MARPOL requirements.
The variants of perspective tankers types of mixed river-sea going vessels for further construction are given in the report, as follows:
Variant 1 is a barge-tug train of R2 navigation area of mixed river-sea going type of "Volga-Don Max" class with a marine tractive connection. Pusher is of a new generation type.
Variant 2 is a barge-tug train of "M-PR" navigation area of mixed river-sea going type of "Volga-Don Max" class with a river tractive connection. Pusher is of an existent OT type, barge is of 004ROB05 prj. type.
Variant 3 is a barge-tug train of "M-PR" navigation area of mixed river-sea going type of "Volga-Don Max" class with a river tractive connection. Pusher is of a new generation type, barge is of 005ROB04 prj. type.
Variant 4 is an "estuary" tanker vessels of "M-PR" navigation area of mixed river-sea going type of "Volga-Don Max" class with lowered air draught.
Variant 5 is a tanker of R2 of navigation area of mixed river-sea going type of "Volga-Don Max" class of "New Armada" type (RST22M prj.) with "normal" forms.
Variant 6 is a tanker of R2 of navigation area of mixed river-sea going type of "Volga-Don Max" class of RST27 prj. with "super fat" forms.
Additional oil and oil products transportation variants are as follows:
• by tankers and barge-tug trains with restricted navigation area (classes R3-RSN (M-SP), R2-RSN, R2, R1) for transportation from estuary river ports Azov-Black Sea region, shallow water sea ports of Azov Sea and sea ports of Black and Baltic Seas to European and Turkish ports without transshipment round the year. Cargo accumulation at the ports are carried out by rail way and automobile transport and also by river vessels;
• by tankers and barge-tug trains with restricted navigation area (classes R3-RSN (M-SP), R2-RSN, R2, R1) at Caspian Sea (round the year) or from Caspian ports to the European ports through Russian inland waterways (during Spring-Summer period);
• by tankers and barge-tug trains with mixed river-sea going navigation area (classes R3-RSN (M-SP) and higher) for cargo transportation from river Russian and Ukraine ports and Danube ports to the Mediterranean and Turkish ports without transshipment; also for transportation from Russian river ports and Oil Refine Factories to the Danube ports without transshipment (during Spring-Summer period);
• by tankers and barge-tug trains with mixed river-sea going navigation area (class M-SP and higher) for cargo transportation from Russian river ports to the Danube ports (during Spring-Summer period).
It is recommended to build tankers according to Variant 6 (tanker of R2 of navigation area of mixed river-sea going type of "Volga-Don Max" class of RST27 prj. with "super fat" forms; concept was developed in 2010 due to Federal purpose plan "Development of civil marine engineering"). Already 27 vessels of this project were built during 2012-2013.
The total requirements for new tankers of mixed river-sea going type are of 100-120 units.
III. "Line" of cruise passenger inland and mixed river-sea going vessels for Russian rivers. G.V. Egorov, I.A. Ilnitskiy and Ya.V. Kalugin are the authors.
On the 30th of October, 2012 a meeting with participation of RF President V.V.Putin and representatives of Russian transport industry was carried out. It was discussed problem concerning neediness of government interference into new generation of river passenger vessels building.
Demand of this problem discussion at the most high government level was boiled up long ago. "Bulgaria" tragedy is not the main reason. The average age of Russian river cruise vessels according to RRR is 38.5 years. It is clear that for the limit time of operation of such vessels (by world data) 45-50 years, we will soon lose our snow-white wonderful vessels that allow our and foreign tourists to enjoy the beauty of the Russian rivers, ancient cities, unique Kizhi and Valaam and learn the history of a great country "alive".
Reducing of the total number of cruise vessels in operation requires replacement of the obsolete fleet by the modern one. This requires a lot of years, significant financial and labor consumptions. Navigation period restriction on the Russian rivers significantly increases the payback period of investment (over 15-20 years), and disables the attraction of credit resources of commercial banks and usage of funds of leasing companies operating at the market.
In the report it was given a parametric line up-to-date comfortable river cruise vessels that are interested for Russian shipping companies. This line is based at 2010-2012 investigations carried out by Marine Engineering Bureau with active participation OJSE "Vodokhod". Discussion with passenger industry leading specialists had the principal role. List of these specialists is as follows: K.O. Anisimov, V.F. Berezin, A.A. Trophimov, D.G. Ryabov, A.V. Basov, D.N. Galkyn, A.E. Smolyn, A.A. Semin.
Generally for our conditions traditional single hull type passenger vessel can be recommended. Module principles of creating inner living space should be used widely. Standard module cabins usage let alternate passenger capacity by using passenger cabin modules with different area (in accordance with required comfort level).
Principal feature is all-around looking ability especially for river cruises (thanks for sun deck, or fore saloon, or for walking galleries). In contrast to sea voyages view from both sides is interesting; river voyagers buy one way ticket so simple view from window or balcony isn't sufficient.
For safe and fast passengers evacuation up-to-date evacuation systems may be used. Such system consists of hose and reception platform. Passengers come down to the reception platform during evacuation and then are moved from the platform to the life rafts or boats. Sometimes passengers can come down to the safety craft directly.
Crew should be formed according to power plant automation level such as to automation of deck works (e.g. automation anchor-mooring winches), automation of supply loading and mechanization of decks cleaning (washing gauges etc,). Holding several offices by crew members may be considered also.
For our opinion new generation of cruise vessels for Russian inland waterways shouls be characterized by the following features:
1. Due to main particulars. Restrictions of way conditions of vessel's operational region are the determinative key (e.g. depth, dimensions of vessel's navigation pass, dimensions of waterside structures and so on).
2. Due to constructive vessel's type, as follows:
a) so called "floating hotels" with superstructure at all vessel's breadth without passages by sides (with full-grown balconies/ terraces or with French balconies at cabins for cruise vessels that are oriented to foreign tourists. Upper "sun" deck is equipped with swimming pool and sun tents.
b) with promenade gallery by sides on all decks; such arrangement provides all-round view for tourists. This variant is used rarely for new projects because many tourists don't like when other people are close to the windows of their cabins.
c) with fore saloon that provides both-sides view.
Practically all new cruise vessels (marine and river going) built abroad are foreseen with maximal number of balconies.
3. Due to inner compartments planning:
• Module principles of forming living blocks in total and cabins themselves (standard cabins) and vertical zoning of living and public compartments were used; restaurant, salons and bars are arranged in vertical zones separate from living compartments; noise spaces are not arranged above passenger or crew cabins.
• Total cabins area is 13 - 30 sq.m including balcony/Frenche Balcony (cabins usually are double).
• The next compartments are foreseen:
restaurants with total places equivalent to passengers' number;
whirlpool on open sun deck;
theatrical-musician salon with scene.
• For physically challenged persons are foreseen:
lifts connected all decks;
special cabins and toilets.
As a whole, the choice of basic elements river cruise vessels is defined:
• by traveling conditions;
• tour operator strategy and his position in the market;
• adherence to those or other lines;
• a level of comfortableness in view of requirements;
• propensities and interests of passengers for which these vessels are built.
Such external subjective choice should be carried out basing on discrete number of the alternatives which quite objectively have arisen in the domestic tourist market as result of the compromise at a choice of way restrictions and sizes of tourist groups:
When designing new vessels one unequivocally has to start with the level of comfortableness set by the customer as quantity of conditional stars or comfortableness factor which will serve as the regulating factor of efficiency of the future vessel as function determining the required areas of decks and compartments, overall vessel's dimensions, vessel's propulsive characteristic, and vessel's economic efficiency as a result.
As criterion of an estimation of passenger vessels design comfortableness it is possible to apply the five-stars scale informally used practically by all tour operators. The quantity of stars increases according to increase of a degree of service quality and comfort.
Such alternatives' analyze let build parametric line of cruise river-sea going and river vessels that are in-fact interested for domestic shipowners, and work-out designs of new vessels.
This parametric line includes necessary for tourist services modern market the following basic classes of river cruise vessels (inland vessels and river-sea going ones):
1. Volgo-Balt Max class, (prj. PV500VB, vessel's dimensions are defined due to Volgo-Balt WaterWay conditions, passenger capacity 518 persons). Operation at line from St.Petersburg to Moscow is proposed. For river-sea going variant it is fore4seen the ability to sail to Gulf of Finland, to the ports of Kronshtadt and Vyborg, to the Baltic and North Seas. Maximal dimensions and increased manoeuvrability due to full-circle rudder propellers and bow thrusters let work in Volga region including Astrakhan.
For the 518 persons passenger capacity variant has the arrangement scheme as follows:
• 97 standard double cabins (15.5 sq.m);
• 72 double cabins (17 sq.m) with French balcony;
• 72 double cabins (17 sq.m) with a balcony;
• 24 luxury double cabins (26 sq.m) with a balcony;
• 2 luxury apartments (41 sq.m) with a balcony.
Passenger capacity of the vessel can be varied depending on the type of cabin modules used. Passenger cabins are located in the middle vertical zone on 4 superstructure decks and within the hull on the lower deck. Master's and officers' cabins are located on the sun deck near the bridge. Accommodation of the other part of crew (107 persons) is foreseen within the hull at the middle (living) vertical zone. Cabins on the upper and sun decks have own balconies with sliding sections that provide through pass at emergency situations.
Forward vertical zone includes as follows: restaurant, panoramic theatrical music saloon with a bar and terrace, transformable conference halls, galley, pantry, provision stores, mess room and relax room for the crew, air-condition system room and fresh water preparing room.
Aft vertical zone includes as follows: round-the-clock bar with a terrace, grill bar, video saloon, library, shops, information desk, children's room, internet office, sauna, hair saloon, spa saloon, massage room, gym, store rooms, engine room and sewage treatment room.
2. Volgo-Don Max class, (vessel's dimensions are defined due to Volgo-Don waterway conditions, passenger capacity about 250-300 persons). Operation at a number of lines is proposed, as follows: from St.Petersburg to Moscow; through Volgo-Don Canal with sailing to Azov Sea, Black Sea, Mediterranean, Red Sea; through Volga River with sailing to Caspian Sea; through Volgo-Bat Waterway with sailing to Baltic Sea and North Sea. Within general ideas concerning vessel's class 3 projects were discussed, as follows:
• PV300VD with ability of sea sailing;
• PV300 with ability of sailing through Ladoga and Onega Lakes at "M" class regions;
• PV250 with ability of sailing through Ladoga and Onega Lakes at "O" class regions and through Volkhov River.
Passenger capacity of the vessel can be varied from 250 till 300 persons depending on the type of cabin modules used (standard cabin area may be from 13 till 18 sq.m.).
High interest induces passenger tug-barge train of PV250 concept that is been going to be operated at far cruise lines, as follows: from Moscow to St.Petersburg, from Moscow to Astralhan, from Moscow to Rostov-on-Don with sailing through Volgo-Don Canal and inland water regions of "O" class. Concept is foreseen as jointed one that includes living module and engine module in order to eliminate noise and vibration. Living module can be used as independent floating hotel in winter using shore energy. Engine module should be under maintenance and inter-navigation repair.
3. Danube Max class, (prj. PV200D, vessel's dimensions are defined due to Danube River conditions such as inter-basin Danube-Main-Rhine region, passenger capacity about 200 persons). Operation at Russian inland waterways is proposed such as at Danube River with sailing through Azov Sea, Black Sea and Mediterranean. Moreover operation at Danube-Main-Rhine is proposed with sailing through North Sea. Danube Max class vessel is able to operate at lines of Volgo-Balt Max class vessels, "Volgo-Don" Max class ones and Belomor-Baltiysk Max class ones.
4. Belomor-Baltiysk Max class, (prj. PV200BB, vessel's dimensions are defined due to Belomor-Baltiysk Canal conditions, passenger capacity about 200 persons). Operation at a number of lines is proposed, as follows: from St.Petersburg to Moscow; from St.Petersburg to Belomorsk through Belomor-Baltiysk Canal with sailing to White Sea and to the region of islands Solovetskie. Belomor-Baltiysk Max class vessel is able to operate at lines of Volgo-Balt Max class vessels and "Volgo-Don" Max class ones.
This class vessel is able make cruises from Moscow to Nizhniy Novgorod and from Moscow to Ufa keeping draught less than 1.40 m. Other words vessel can operate at Oka River and Belaya River conditions.
5. Vessels with passenger capacity of 100-150 persons.
PV250 concept (capacity of 100-150 persons) is to be operated at cruise lines Moscow - Velikiy Novgorod trough Ladoga and Onega Lakes and shallow rivers of Volga basin. Concept's air draught is restricted for providing sailing through Volkhov River. Some this class vessels will be able also carry out voyages Moscow - Nizhniy Novgorod (trough Oka River) and Moscow - Ufa.
6. Single day cruises (without passenger cabins).
Such direction is presented by 250-persons PV01 concept (m/v "Imperiya"). M/V "Imperia" was built in 2008 and successfully works till now at the Black Sea coast of Russia. She carries out single day voyages.
PV01 concept is a steel, triple deck, double crew motor vessel. She has bow with sloping stem, forecastle, transom stern and deckhouse located in the middle. Main engines are located aft, living quarters and office accommodations are located fore. 3 cabins for service personnel (12 persons) are located in the hold. Swimming pool is located between decks of first and second tiers. Restaurants are placed on the first and second tiers of the superstructure. There are a scene and make-up room in the restaurant placed on the first tier. There is a VIP zone in the restaurant placed on the second tier. Food heating room, pantry and laundry are also located on the on the first tier. Bridge and crew cabins (5 persons) are located also on the third tier.
One may pay attention that that the biggest part of the pleasure voyages near Berlin, Paris, London and Amsterdam are domestic or foreign tourists. Marine Facade appearance and setting 72 hours without visa for marine cruise passengers that enter St.-Petersburg provides "explosive" increase of pleasure St.-Petersburg fleet. Facilitation of visa regime for tourists and hotels building also may provide impulse for single day voyages enhancing at Moscow and other Russian river cities.