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20.03.20 14:16
Shipbuilding for the commercial shipping companies - from the report for the ShippingRu 2020 Conference



International conference "ShippingRu 2020" had to take place in Moscow on March, 18, 2020; conference's subject concerns current condition of the Russian market of marine transportation.
 
The general director of the Marine Engineering Bureau, professor, Dr.Sci.Tech. Gennadiy Egorov has prepared the report "The Review of shipbuilding in Russia: rates and opportunities for construction, modernizations, renewing. Perspective projects of vessels" for session "Development of shipbuilding in the Russian Federation".
 
Due to known restrictions, conference's date has been changed.
 
Therefore organizers of conference have asked to share to the shipping industry presentation and theses of the report.
 
The presentation of the report of professor Gennady Egorov - download*.
 
The theses are divided in three parts.
 
* - in presentation there are photos of the next authors: Alexander Konov, Valeriy Mazin, Vladimir Vladislavlev, Vladimir Denisov, Vladislav Ponomarev, Georgiy Meshkov, Dmitriy Frolov, Eugeniy Borodin, Pavel Emelyanov, Pavel Feklistov, Sergey Lutov, Sergey Morozov, etc.
 

Part 1. Vessels for commercial shipping companies
 
As a result of discarding out-of-date merchant fleet, river-sea segment of the Russian transportation market will be interested for Volgo-Don Max vessels in the dry-cargo, oil and combined variants. Most likely construction of new tankers for replacement of old Volgoneft ones will be again accepted by 2023.
 
when Bagaevskiy water-engineering complex at Nizhniy Don should be put into operation.
 
Today there are about 1561 cargo vessel of river, river-sea or restricted marine types in operation; 71% of them are "old" ones, rest 21% are constructed in XXI century.
 
Vivid example of a new successful concept is ten of RSD44 dry-cargo vessels of " Geroi Stalingrada" type, that are operated by Volga Shipping Company practically for ten years.
 
River deadweight of RSD44 vessel is about 5543 t at draught 3.60 m; marine deadweight is about 5562 at draught 3.53 m. RSD44 vessel's river deadweight at draught 3.60 m is bigger for about 100 t than RSD59 vessels has, and RSD44 building's cost is smaller (she is lighter by weight and by Class requirements).
 
RSD44 air draught is of 5.4m for ballast loading (less for cargo loading); that allows her, as against all others, to pass under Neva bridges and under Rostov Railway bridge without bridges' drawing. In result RSD44 vessel saves time for expectation of turn for bridges drawing which makes up to 20 day per navigation.
 
Thus the RSD44 vessel is unique engineering complex which combines optimal for internal water ways dimensions and modern gears and navigational technical equipment and has significant advantages in comparison with existing analogs.
 
In total among new vessels there are 221 dry-cargo ones and 233 tankers and combined ones. Under construction at different stages there are 71 more vessels, namely 59 dry-cargo vessels and 12 tankers.
 
Recycling of tankers appreciably lags behind dry-cargo vessels by rates though after 2011 relative growth of tankers' discarding for scrap is observed. In view of small depths at Nizhniy Don in 2020 navigation and a probable prohibition of road transshipment of power cargoes, putting out of operation of old tankers can be sped up essentially.
 

What fleet is interested these companies?
 
Real interest of shipping business is concentrated in several main directions:
 
• transportation of cargoes from/to shallow and mouth ports towards seaports;
• work at road transshipment complexes;
• transportation through internal waterways;
• "northern" delivery;
• transit through internal waterways to/from Caspian Sea;and also small consignments (from 2 up to 8 thousand tons) transportations between seaports.
 
These river-sea and restricted marine navigation vessels strongly differ from world fleet due to special way conditions.
 
The paradox is in that at open marine market these vessels have no chance (they cannot be competitive with vessels of essentially greater size, e.g. Handysize, Panamax, Suezmax, Capesize ones) due to dimensions effect (5-7 thousand tons against 50-300 thousand tons of cargo). But also, on the contrary, at the world market there are no marine vessels which could "replace" river-sea ones.
 
For information, river vessels from Europe too cannot be competitive at the Russian water market, again due to because of dimensions effect (typical carrying capacity of the European river-sea vessel is 1700-2500 t against 5000-7000 t for Russian vessels), and European c restricted marine navigation vessels have deadweight about 4500 t at draught of 5-6 m (limit for our Azov and Caspian ports is of 4.5 m).
 
This is feature for fleet of the majority of the post-Soviet companies. A basis of merchant fleet in the researched river-sea segment includes first of all river-sea dry-cargo, tanker and combined vessels as well as restricted marine navigation vessels and marine vessels with deadweight not bigger than 8000 t (so-call coasters).
 
Attention! Export of raw material from Arctic regions is subject for the separate analysis.
 

What shipyards and how build these vessels?
 
In the new century Russian shipyards have built 271 cargo vessels, and 56 more ones are at different stages of construction.
 
It means that this type vessels, as against marine ones, really were built (59%) and are being building (79%) at domestic shipyards. This is really Russian shipbuilding.
 
Certainly, Nizhniy Novgorod shipyard "Krasnoe Sormovo" is a leader; it has built 111 vessels, on the average 5-6 vessels per year. Potentially, the shipyard is able to build up to 12 Volgo-Don Max vessels per year.
 
The second place is for Navashino Oka Shipyard; it has built 52 self-propelled cargo vessels, on the average 2-3 vessels per year. Potentially, the shipyard is able to build up to 10 Volgo-Don Max vessels per year; for example, in 2011, 2012 and in 2019 shipyard has built 8 vessels per year.
 
The Volgograd Shipyard till the stop of activity in 2010-2011 has built 3 vessels per year on the average (6 ones in 2006); potentially it was able to build up to 8 vessels per year.
 
The Onega Shipyard in 2005-2010 has built 3 vessels per year on the average (6 ones in 2010); potentially it was able to build up to 4 vessels per year.
 
The Nevsky Shipyard in 2012-2019 has constructed 13 vessels of the researched class, i.e. 2 vessels per year on the average (5 ones in 2006); potentially it is able to build up to 8-10 vessels per year.
 
Building distribution for other countries is as follows: 65 (14%) vessels were plus 4 ones under constructing in the China, 58 (13%) plus 3 in the Turkey, 25 (6%) plus 5 in the Ukraine, 14 in the Romania, 8 in the Vietnam, 5 in the Netherlands, 4 in the Bulgaria, 2 in the Germany, 1 in the Poland. Single river-sea tanker was built and 3 ones are under construction in the Azerbaijan.
 

About leasing in shipbuilding
 
Usage of the leasing mechanism, first of all activity PJSE "State Transport Leasing Company" made active of fleet updating that is reflected in statistics of 2019-2020.
 
On the 3rd of March, 2020 Oka Shipyard has launched its first, and on the 5th March, 2020 "Krasnoe Sormovo" Shipyard has launched its fifteenth RSD59 dry-cargo vessel.
 
On the 18th of October, 2019 1102 kW pusher tugboat "Sergey Kladko" was handed over to FSBE "Marine Rescue Service of RosMorRechFlot" at the industrial territory of the Kolomna port.
 
On the 15th of November, 2019 the eighth (final) RSD32M multi-purpose dry-cargo vessel "Anatoly Nikolaev" of 6220 t deadweight was handed over in Navashino. All series was constructed in 2019.
 
On the 30th of December, 2019 Samara "Nefteflot" Shipyard has handed over two RDB12 hold dry-cargo barges of 4885 t deadweight; the 3rd barge is under completing now.
 
On the 15th of May, 2019 the eighth (final) ROB20 small-draught "double-hull" non-self-propelled oil barge "Belmax 8" of class "O" of Novaya Belskaya" type of 6000 t deadweight was handed over. Two RDB20 hold dry-cargo barges is under construction now (on the basis of ROB20 prj.).
 

New tendencies in the fleet structure
 
41 vessels were discarded in 2017, 31 vessels in 2018, 20 vessel (adjust later) in 2020. "3000" type ones are prevailed, namely 16 "Sormoskiy" type vessels of 1557 prj., 16 "Volga-Balt" type ones of 2-95, 2-95A/R and 791 prjs. "Neterudovoz" type vessels are prevailed at tanker segment, 14 vessels were utilized. Also during last three years there were discarded, as follows: 8 vessels of the "Volgo-Don" type of 507 and 1565 prjs. (17 more vessels are announced for utilization), 10 tankers of "Volgoneft" type, 3 vessels of "Omskiy" type of 1743 prj. (by earlier estimations, they concerned to objects for repair "up to the last"). Besides the utilization grant mechanism has been commenced.
 
In a result, from 2206 cargo self-propelled vessels of river, river-sea or restricted marine types of most known "Soviet" series, 1115 (inc. 925 with Russian flag) ones are in operation for the May of 2019. The mean age is 39.2 years. 210 vessels (mean age of 41.7 years) are out of operation; they are potential candidates for discarding.
 
Today 1561 cargo vessels are in operation, 71% from them are "old" ones, rest 21% were built in XXI century. Thus the working cargo fleet is not only "Soviet" series of vessels. 454 cargo vessels of river, river-sea or restricted marine types were built (or bought on the market) since 2000 (23 ones per year on the average).
 
It is interesting, that 10% are bought, not ordered specially for Russian inland way conditions. These are 45 vessels, namely 25 dry-cargo ones and 20 tankers.
 
21 vessels were built in the China, 12 in the Turkey, 5 in the Netherlands, 4 in the Bulgaria, 2 in the Germany, 1 in the Poland. The data is given without taking into account DCV36 coaster (10 vessels) specially constructed in China for the North-Western Shipping Company and some similar projects.
 
454 new vessels include 233 tankers and 221 dry-cargo vessels. 71 ones are under different stages of construction namely 59 dry-cargo vessels and 12 tankers. Tankers have made 51% from total built vessels and 16% from being constructed ones. Dry-cargo vessels have made 49% and 84% accordingly.
 
Thus, before 2017 orders for construction of oil and chemical tankers and combined vessels were dominated; however since 2016 orders for construction of dry-cargo vessels prevail.
 

Perspective concepts of dry-cargo vessels
 
The British Institution of Naval Architects (RINA) included first RSD59 vessel with "super-full" contours "Pola Makariya" in the list of the best 2019 vessels. For December, 2019 there was already 14 sister-ships, totally 60 ones are ordered. RSD59 version for gasoil is worked out.
 
Comparison of technical-operational characteristics of RSD59 prj. and other Volgo-Don Max prjs. shows that concerning power consumption per transport rate unit, RSD59 vessel is better than RSD59 and 006RSD05 vessels designed on the basis of Armada series, and is significantly better than dry cargo vessels of Volga and Rusich types.
 
If we adds significant increase of deadweight (together with deadweight-displacement utilization factor) either for full draught or for river draught (that is more important; addition of 800 t comparing to "Neva Leader" type and of 1495 t comparing to Volga type), while light ships and equipment are quite similar for all designs, then advantage of the new RSD59 "Pola Makaria" type concept becomes excellent.
 
However it is necessary to understand, that the question is philosophical concerning "super-full" vessels, not about details; not everybody has to build double hold vessels with long 80 m hold only with RS class that is necessary for voyages around Europe. Probably, the grain cargo base demands vessels with the same "super-full" contours and with keeping of the most complex parts of a vessel (aft end, engine room, superstructure, fore end), but with lighter hull and smaller depth amidship. It will give the additive approximately 200 t of cargo for draughts 3.60 - 4.00 m (concept RSD62 as development of RSD59), with usual number of holds (3-4) as it is made, for example, for RSD79. Probably another hatch covers type may be used (foldings or, pigi-baqck).
 
Besides significant interest of light and small shipowners for RSD34 vessels in substitution of "Omskiy" type is marked, but "start" of such series needs for the following step, namely operational leasing. The idea of construction of vessels and especially of pushed trains of 2000-3000 t carrying capacity becomes more and more actual, but is not clear yet how to finance such new orders, in fact their profitableness is less, than "Volgo-Don Max" has, but thus such vessels and trains transport significant part of river cargoes.
 
At last, all have somehow forget that the Volga Shipping Company already practically for ten years successfully operates ten new dry-cargo RSD44 vessels of "Geroi Stalingrada" type, including at road transshipment complex of the Caucasus seaport in the "M-PR" class.
 
River deadweight of RSD44 vessel is about 5543 t at draught 3.60 m; marine deadweight is about 5562 at draught 3.53 m.
 
RSD44 vessel's river deadweight at draught 3.60 m is bigger for about 100 t than RSD59 vessels has, and RSD44 building's cost is smaller (she is lighter by weight and by Class requirements).
 
RSD44 air draught is of 5.4m for ballast loading (less for cargo loading); that allows her, as against all others, to pass under Neva bridges and under Rostov Railway bridge without bridges' drawing. In result RSD44 vessel saves time for expectation of turn for bridges drawing which makes up to 20 day per navigation.
 
Thus the RSD44 vessel is unique engineering complex which combines optimal for internal water ways dimensions and modern gears and navigational technical equipment and has significant advantages in comparison with existing analogs.
 

Perspective concepts of oil and chemical tankers
 
The British Institution of Naval Architects (RINA) has included RSD59 vessel with "super-full" contours in the list of the best vessels twice (Significant Ships of 2012 Significant Ships of 2013) that is seldom. Later on in such lists there were included combined vessel RST54 (Significant Ships of 2014) and chemical tanker RST27M (Significant Ships of 2017).
 
It is not casual, as the economy of oil products transportation by river-sea vessels till 2016 was essentially better than for dry cargoes. Indirectly it is confirmed by the fact that new "Volgo-Don Max" tankers were been constructed 163 vessels (in 2.3 times more than dry-cargo vessels).
 
Besides on already being built series of tankers (RST22M, RST27, RST25) an essential expansion of a spectrum of transported bulk cargoes was done; firs at of all molasses and cargoes with general name "vegetable oils" (including bio-fuel, famous now palm oil, etc.) were added to oil and oil products. Then "light" chemicals were added that required meeting requirements concerning damage stability and equipment, also tank coatings as for IMO 2 chemical tankers.
 
However as the analysis of vessels' discarding shows, construction of new tankers for replacement of old Volgoneft ones will be again accepted by 2023, because there are too many "Soviet built" vessels in operation.
 
Even if now the part of the missed oil cargoes return to river, it transportation will be provided by Volgoneft vessels (modernized up to conventional requirements), and also already available new tankers of projects RST27, RST22, RST25 and 19614.
 

New materials
 
While vessel's dimensions and water depth are restricted, the increase of carrying capacity is possible only due to increase of block coefficient and reduction of the light weight.
 
"Super-full" contours that Marine Engineering Bureau use for RST27, RST27M, RSD59, RSD62, RSD79 vessels, are quite final answer for the first question. Concerning decreasing of weight of the steel hull, it can be noted that all attempts of colleague to improve MEB decision at other projects have led only to negative results, i.e. metal consumption has grown somewhere for 200 t, somewhere for 300 t and on somewhere even more; decrease of carrying capacity was corresponding.
 
Thus, it is practically defined that vessel's weight to reducing is possible already only by using of lighter materials.
 
Aluminium alloys are certainly widely known in domestic shipbuilding for many years and are applied first of all for hull of high-speed vessel (for increase of useful loading due to decrease of hull weight), superstructures and deckhouses of passenger vessels, ferryboats and auxiliary vessels (for solving stability problem due to lowering altitude of CoG).
 
Superstructures of the new generation cruise vessels of projects PV08, PV09, PV300, PV300VD can be used as an example.
 
Innovation is application of new Al-Mg alloys developed by Rusal with the lowered content of the scandium,.
 
The basic advantages of deformable Sc-containing RUSAL alloys (0,1% Sc) are as follows: low cost (in 2-3 times) in comparison with traditional Sc-containing alloys; surpassing traditional alloys for minimum 40% by strength; the high level of properties is reached without use of operation of hardening in water. Decreasing of Sc-alloys' (as ingots) cost is reached, namely down to 5000 US dollars per ton (less than 0.1% Sc).
 
Due to strength increasing, the weight of constructions can be reduced approximately for 25% in comparison with usual aluminium alloys.
 
Therefore the special attention in the report has been given to application of aluminium alloys for manufacturing of hatch covers for river dry-cargo vessels. It is shown, that for a perspective river vessel of carrying capacity about 2500 tons (110 m length and 12 m width) the weight of such hatch covers will make about 25 tons only.
 
Scientific Investigation Center "Kurchatov institute - CNII KM "Prometey" has developed the technology of production of the welded large-sized lightened panels (SKO-panels) with use of rolled and pressed semifinished items made from corrosion-proof Al-Mg alloys 1561, 1565ch of thickness from 2.5 mm by a method of welding by friction with hashing.
 
Colleagues in the Krylov center had been carried out the analysis of efficiency of weight reduction of hull and superstructure constructions of vessels' various classes when using such welded large-sized lightened SKO-panels panels instead of the traditional pressed panels of PK0266 type. It is shown, that weight reduction can be reached both due to decrease of panel thickness, or due to increase of distance between stiffeners. The greatest effect of weight reduction for hull constructions of passenger vessels is of 23% is provided by replacement of pressed panel PK0266 by the welded large-sized lightened panel of 2.5 mm thickness and distance 400 mm between stiffeners.
 
Also it has been shown, that usage of composites superstructure is actual for river and river-sea cargo vessels for the following items: hatch covers (for example, such decision is widely applied for USA water transport), moved transverse bulkheads, hull fittings, elements of superstructure.